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Pediatric Test Reference Values

Age-Matched Referenced Values

Provision of age-matched reference values is critical for the proper care of pediatric patients. Mayo Medical Laboratories is committed to providing the most accurate reference values possible. Children are not small adults. Their test results may vary significantly from adults or even from children of different ages based on their stage of biological development.

Ongoing Pediatric Initiative

Tests and method changes include specific pediatric reference values when appropriate. This continuing effort is a result of a pediatric initiative begun in 2005, when the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at Mayo Clinic conducted a comprehensive review of pediatric reference values for laboratory tests.

Types of Reference Values Provided

  • Mayo-derived pediatric reference values that are based on age, and in some cases, Tanner classification.
  • Reference values that apply to all ages are designated as such.
  • Literature-derived pediatric values (citations provided).

Values are Based on the Following Information

Mayo-derived pediatric reference values generated from:

  • Large numbers of pediatric specimens, at least 120 per age or gender strata
  • Subject populations who have undergone clinical puberty staging, using the Tanner classification (such Tanner-stratified studies can require up to 1,000 specimens to complete the evaluation)
  • Disease-classified (including medications, medical history) specimens, which allows exclusion of samples from patients who suffer from conditions that are likely to affect the levels of the analyte for which pediatric values are being generated.

An exhaustive literature review:

  • Determining if published studies provide useful and reliable interpretive guidance based on analytic method comparability, patient selection criteria and sample size, specimens employed, and statistical tools used.
  • In most instances, such literature-based values are also backed by additional validation data, such as a method comparison between the published method and the method used by Mayo’s laboratories.

DHVD/8822: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D, Serum

Males
<16 years: 24-86 pg/mL
> or =16 years: 18-64 pg/mL
Females
<16 years: 24-86 pg/mL
> or =16 years: 18-78 pg/mL

DCRN/8847: 11-Deoxycorticosterone, Serum

< or =18 years: <30 ng/dL
>18 years: <10 ng/dL

DOC/8547: 11-Deoxycortisol, Serum

< or =18 years: <344 ng/dL
>18 years: 10-79 ng/dL

THCM/84284: 11-nor-Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-9-Carboxylic Acid (Carboxy-THC), Confirmation, Meconium

Negative
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
Cutoff concentrations
Tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (marijuana metabolite) by LC-MS/MS: >10 ng/g

17OHP/81151: 17-Hydroxypregnenolone, Serum

CHILDREN*
Males
Premature (26-28 weeks): 1,219-9,799 ng/dL
Premature (29-36 weeks): 346-8,911 ng/dL
Full term (1-5 months): 229-3,104 ng/dL
6 months-364 days: 221-1,981 ng/dL
1-2 years: 35-712 ng/dL
3-6 years: <277 ng/dL
7-9 years: <188 ng/dL
10-12 years: <393 ng/dL
13-15 years: 35-465 ng/dL
16-17 years: 32-478 ng/dL
 
TANNER STAGES
Stage I: <209 ng/dL
Stage II: <356 ng/dL
Stage III: <451 ng/dL
Stage IV-V: 35-478 ng/dL
Females
Premature (26-28 weeks): 1,219-9,799 ng/dL
Premature (29-36 weeks): 346-8,911 ng/dL
Full term (1-5 months): 229-3,104 ng/dL
6 months-364 days: 221-1,981 ng/dL
1-2 years: 35-712 ng/dL
3-6 years: <277 ng/dL
7-9 years: <213 ng/dL
10-12 years: <399 ng/dL
13-15 years: <408 ng/dL
16-17 years: <424 ng/dL
 
TANNER STAGES
Stage I: <236 ng/dL
Stage II: <368 ng/dL
Stage III: <431 ng/dL
Stage IV-V: <413 ng/dL
ADULTS
Males
> or =18 years: 55-455 ng/dL
Females
> or =18 years: 31-455 ng/dL
*Kushnir MM, Rockwood AL, Roberts WL, et al: Development and performance evaluation of a tandem mass spectrometry assay for 4 adrenal steroids. Clin Chem 2006;52(8):1559-1567

OHPG/9231: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum

Children
Preterm infants
Preterm infants may exceed 630 ng/dL, however, it is uncommon to see levels reach 1,000 ng/dL.
Term infants
0-28 days: <630 ng/dL
Levels fall from newborn (<630 ng/dL) to prepubertal gradually within 6 months.
Prepubertal males: <110 ng/dL
Prepubertal females: <100 ng/dL 
Adults
Males: <220 ng/dL
Females
Follicular: <80 ng/dL
Luteal: <285 ng/dL
Postmenopausal: <51 ng/dL
Note: For pregnancy reference ranges, see: Soldin OP, Guo T, Weiderpass E, et al: Steroid hormone levels in pregnancy and 1 year postpartum using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Fertil Steril 2005 Sept;84(3):701-710

OH21/81970: 21-Hydroxylase Antibodies, Serum

<1 U/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

25HDN/83670: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, Serum

TOTAL 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D2 AND D3 (25-OH-VitD)
<10 ng/mL (severe deficiency)*
10-19 ng/mL (mild to moderate deficiency)**
20-50 ng/mL (optimum levels)***
51-80 ng/mL (increased risk of hypercalciuria)****
>80 ng/mL (toxicity possible)*****
*Could be associated with osteomalacia or rickets
**May be associated with increased risk of osteoporosis or secondary hyperparathyroidism
***Optimum levels in the healthy population; patients with bone disease may benefit from higher levels within this range
****Sustained levels >50 ng/mL 25OH-VitD along with prolonged calcium supplementation may lead to hypercalciuria and decreased renal function
****80 ng/mL is the lowest reported level associated with toxicity in patients without primary hyperparathyroidism who have normal renal function. Most patients with toxicity have levels >150 ng/mL. Patients with renal failure can have very high 25-OH-VitD levels without any signs of toxicity, as renal conversion to the active hormone 1,25-OH-VitD is impaired or absent.
 
These reference ranges represent clinical decision values, based on the 2011 Institute of Medicine report, that apply to males and females of all ages, rather than population-based reference values. Population reference ranges for 25-OH-VitD vary widely depending on ethnic background, age, geographic location of the studied populations, and the sampling season. Population-based ranges correlate poorly with serum 25-OH-VitD concentrations that are associated with biologically and clinically relevant vitamin D effects and are therefore of limited clinical value.

6MAMM/89659: 6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), Confirmation, Meconium

Negative
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
Cutoff concentration:
6-MAM by LC-MS/MS: >5 ng/g

ACHE_/9287: Acetylcholinesterase, Amniotic Fluid (AChE-AF), Amniotic Fluid

Negative (reported as negative [normal] or positive [abnormal] for inhibitable acetylcholinesterase)
 
Reference values were established in conjunction with alpha-fetoprotein testing and include only amniotic fluids from pregnancies between 14 and 21 weeks gestation.

APCRV/81967: Activated Protein C Resistance V (APCRV), Plasma

APCRV RATIO
> or =2.3
Pediatric reference range has neither been established nor is available in scientific literature. The adult reference range likely would be applicable to children >6 months.
 
REPORTABLE RANGE
1.0-10.0

ACRN/82413: Acylcarnitines, Quantitative, Plasma

Acetylcarnitine, C2
1-7 days: 2.14-15.89 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: 2.00-27.57 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: 2.00-17.83 nmol/mL
 
Propionylcarnitine, C3
1-7 days: <0.55 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <1.78 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.88 nmol/mL
 
Iso-/Butyrylcarnitine, C4
1-7 days: <0.46 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <1.06 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.83 nmol/mL
 
Isovaleryl-/2-Methylbutyrylcarnitine, C5
1-7 days: <0.38 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.63 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.51 nmol/mL
 
Hexanoylcarnitine, C6
1-7 days: <0.14 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.23 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.17 nmol/mL
 
3-OH-Hexanoylcarnitine, C6-OH
1-7 days: <0.08 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.19 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.09 nmol/mL
 
Octenoylcarnitine, C8:1
1-7 days: <0.48 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.91 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.88 nmol/mL
 
Octanoylcarnitine, C8
1-7 days: <0.19 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.45 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.78 nmol/mL
 
Decenoylcarnitine, C10:1
1-7 days: <0.25 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.46 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.47 nmol/mL
 
Decanoylcarnitine, C10
1-7 days: <0.27 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.91 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.88 nmol/mL
 
Glutarylcarnitine, C5-DC
1-7 days: <0.06 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.10 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: 0.11 nmol/mL
 
Dodecenoylcarnitine, C12:1
1-7 days: <0.19 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.37 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.35 nmol/mL
 
Dodecanoylcarnitine, C12
1-7 days: <0.18 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.35 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.26 nmol/mL
 
3-OH-Dodecanoylcarnitine, C12-OH
1-7 days: <0.06 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.09 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.08 nmol/mL
 
Tetradecadienoylcarnitine, C14:2
1-7 days: <0.09 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.13 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.18 nmol/mL
 
Tetradecenoylcarnitine, C14:1
1-7 days: <0.16 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.35 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.24 nmol/mL
 
Tetradecanoylcarnitine, C14
1-7 days: <0.11 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.15 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.12 nmol/mL
 
3-OH-Tetradecenoylcarnitine, C14:1-OH
1-7 days: <0.06 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.18 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.13 nmol/mL
 
3-OH-Tetradecanolycarnitine, C14-OH
1-7 days: <0.04 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.05 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.08 nmol/mL
 
Hexadecenoylcarnitine, C16:1
1-7 days: <0.15 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.21 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.10 nmol/mL
 
Hexadecanoylcarnitine, C16
1-7 days: <0.36 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.52 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.23 nmol/mL
 
3-OH-Hexadecenoylcarnitine, C16:1-OH
1-7 days: <0.78 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.36 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.06 nmol/mL
 
3-OH-Hexadecanoylcarnitine, C16-OH
1-7 days: <0.10 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.07 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.06 nmol/mL
 
Linoleylcarnitine, C18:2
1-7 days: <0.12 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.31 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.24 nmol/mL
 
Oleylcarnitine, C18:1
1-7 days: <0.25 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.45 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.39 nmol/mL
 
Stearoylcarnitine, C18
1-7 days: <0.10 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.12 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.14 nmol/mL
 
3-OH-Linoleylcarnitine, C18:2-OH
1-7 days: <0.04 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.06 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.06 nmol/mL
 
3-OH-Oleylcarnitine, C18:1-OH
1-7 days: <0.03 nmol/mL
8 days-7 years: <0.04 nmol/mL
> or =8 years: <0.06 nmol/mL

ACTH/8411: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Plasma

10-60 pg/mL (a.m. draws)
No established reference values for p.m. draws
Pediatric reference values are the same as adults, as confirmed by peer reviewed literature.
 
Petersen KE: ACTH in normal children and children with pituitary and adrenal diseases. I. Measurement in plasma by radioimmunoassay-basal values. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981;70:341-345

ALT/8362: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (GPT), Serum

Males
> or =1 year: 7-55 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.
Females
> or =1 year: 7-45 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

ALB/8436: Albumin, Serum

> or =12 months: 3.5-5.0 g/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

ALS/8363: Aldolase, Serum

0-16 years: <14.5 U/L
> or =17 years: <7.7 U/L

ALDNA/15150: Aldosterone with Sodium, 24 Hour, Urine

ALDOSTERONE
0-30 days: 0.7-11.0 mcg/24 hours*
1-11 months: 0.7-22.0 mcg/24 hours*
> or =1 year: 2.0-20.0 mcg/24 hours
 
*Loeuille GA, Racadot A, Vasseur P, Vandewalle B: Blood and urinary aldosterone levels in normal neonates, infants and children. Pediatrie 1981;36:335-344
 
SODIUM
41-227 mmol/24 hours
If the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion is >200 mmol, the urinary aldosterone excretion should be <10 mcg.

ALDU/8556: Aldosterone, 24 Hour, Urine

0-30 days: 0.7-11.0 mcg/24 hours*
31 days-11 months: 0.7-22.0 mcg/24 hours*
> or =1 year: 2.0-20.0 mcg/24 hours
 
*Loeuille GA, Racadot A, Vasseur P, Vandewalle B: Blood and urinary aldosterone levels in normal neonates, infants and children. Pediatrie 1981;36:335-344

ALDS/8557: Aldosterone, Serum

0-30 days: 17-154 ng/dL*
31 days-11 months: 6.5-86 ng/dL*
1-10 years:
< or =40 ng/dL (supine)*
< or =124 ng/dL (upright)*
> or =11 years: < or =21 ng/dL (a.m. peripheral vein specimen)
 
*Loeuille GA, Racadot A, Vasseur P, Vandewalle B: Blood and urinary aldosterone levels in normal neonates, infants and children. Pediatrie 1981;36:335-344

ALP/8340: Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum

Males
4 years: 149-369 U/L
5 years: 179-416 U/L
6 years: 179-417 U/L
7 years: 172-405 U/L
8 years: 169-401 U/L
9 years: 175-411 U/L
10 years: 191-435 U/L
11 years: 185-507 U/L
12 years: 185-562 U/L
13 years: 182-587 U/L
14 years: 166-571 U/L
15 years: 138-511 U/L
16 years: 102-417 U/L
17 years: 69-311 U/L
18 years: 52-222 U/L
> or =19 years: 45-115 U/L
Females
4 years: 169-372 U/L
5 years: 162-355 U/L
6 years: 169-370 U/L
7 years: 183-402 U/L
8 years: 199-440 U/L
9 years: 212-468 U/L
10 years: 215-476 U/L
11 years: 178-526 U/L
12 years: 133-485 U/L
13 years: 120-449 U/L
14 years: 153-362 U/L
15 years: 75-274 U/L
16 years: 61-264 U/L
17-23 years: 52-144 U/L
24-45 years: 37-98 U/L
46-50 years: 39-100 U/L
51-55 years: 41-108 U/L
56-60 years: 46-118 U/L
61-65 years: 50-130 U/L
> or =66 years: 55-142 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <4 years of age.

ALKI/89503: Alkaline Phosphatase, Total and Isoenzymes, Serum

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE
Males
4 years: 149-369 U/L
5 years: 179-416 U/L
6 years: 179-417 U/L
7 years: 172-405 U/L
8 years: 169-401 U/L
9 years: 175-411 U/L
10 years: 191-435 U/L
11 years: 185-507 U/L
12 years: 185-562 U/L
13 years: 182-587 U/L
14 years: 166-571 U/L
15 years: 138-511 U/L
16 years: 102-417 U/L
17 years: 69-311 U/L
18 years: 52-222 U/L
> or =19 years: 45-115 U/L
Females
4 years: 169-372 U/L
5 years: 162-355 U/L
6 years: 169-370 U/L
7 years: 183-402 U/L
8 years: 199-440 U/L
9 years: 212-468 U/L
10 years: 215-476 U/L
11 years: 178-526 U/L
12 years: 133-485 U/L
13 years: 120-449 U/L
14 years: 153-362 U/L
15 years: 75-274 U/L
16 years: 61-264 U/L
17-23 years: 52-144 U/L
24-45 years: 37-98 U/L
46-50 years: 39-100 U/L
51-55 years: 41-108 U/L
56-60 years: 46-118 U/L
61-65 years: 50-130 U/L
> or =66 years: 55-142 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <4 years of age.
 
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ISOENZYMES
Liver 1%
0-6 years: 5.1-49.0%
7-9 years: 3.0-45.0%
10-13 years: 2.9-46.3%
14-15 years: 7.8-48.9%
16-18 years: 14.9-50.5%
> or =19 years: 27.8-76.3%
Liver 1
0-6 years: 7.0-112.7 IU/L
7-9 years: 7.4-109.1 IU/L
10-13 years: 7.8-87.6 IU/L
14-15 years: 10.3-75.6 IU/L
16-18 years: 13.7-78.5 IU/L
> or =19 years: 16.2-70.2 IU/L
Liver 2%
0-6 years: 2.9-13.7%
7-9 years: 3.7-12.5%
10-13 years: 2.9-22.3%
14-15 years: 2.2-19.8%
16-18 years: 1.9-12.5%
> or =19 years: 0.0-8.0%
Liver 2
0-6 years: 3.0-41.5 IU/L
7-9 years: 4.0-35.6 IU/L
10-13 years: 3.3-37.8 IU/L
14-15 years: 2.2-32.1 IU/L
16-18 years: 1.4-19.7 IU/L
> or =19 years: 0.0-5.8 IU/L
Bone %
0-6 years: 41.5-82.7%
7-9 years: 39.9-85.8%
10-13 years: 31.8-91.1%
14-15 years: 30.6-85.4%
16-18 years: 38.9-72.6%
> or =19 years: 19.1-67.7%
Bone
0-6 years: 43.5-208.1 IU/L
7-9 years: 41.0-258.3 IU/L
10-13 years: 39.4-346.1 IU/L
14-15 years: 36.4-320.5 IU/L
16-18 years: 32.7-214.6 IU/L
> or =19 years: 12.1-42.7 IU/L
Intestine %
0-6 years: 0.0-18.4%
7-9 years: 0.0-18.3%
10-13 years: 0.0-11.8%
14-15 years: 0.0-8.2%
16-18 years: 0.0-8.7%
> or =19 years: 0.0-20.6%
Intestine
0-6 years: 0.0-37.7 IU/L
7-9 years: 0.0-45.6 IU/L
10-13 years: 0.0-40.0 IU/L
14-15 years: 0.0-26.4 IU/L
16-18 years: 0.0-12.7 IU/L
> or =19 years: 0.0-11.0 IU/L
Placental
Not present

ALPS/82449: Alpha Beta Double-Negative T Cells for Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

Alpha beta TCR+DNT cells
2-18 years: <2% CD3 T cells
19-70+ years: <3% CD3 T cells
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 24 months of age.
 
Alpha beta TCR+DNT cells
2-18 years: <35 cells/mcL
19-70+ years: <35 cells/mcL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 24 months of age.
 
Alpha beta TCR+DNT B220+ cells
2-18 years: <0.4% CD3 T cells
19-70+ years: <0.3% CD3 T cells
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 24 months of age.
 
Alpha beta TCR+DNT B220+ cells
2-18 years: <7 cells/mcL
19-70+ years: <6 cells/mcL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 24 months of age.

A1M24/81036: Alpha-1-Microglobulin, 24 Hour, Urine

> or =16 years: <19 mg/24 hours
7 mg/g creatinine is a literature suggested upper reference limit for pediatrics 1 month to 15 years of age.*
 
*Hjorth L, Helin I, Grubb A: Age-related reference limits for protein HC in children. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2000 Feb;60(1):65-73

RA1M/84448: Alpha-1-Microglobulin, Random, Urine

<50 years: <13 mg/g creatinine
> or =50 years: <20 mg/g creatinine

APSM/9084: Alpha-2 Plasmin Inhibitor, Plasma

Adults: 80-140%
Normal, full-term newborn infants may have borderline low or mildly decreased levels (> or =50%) which reach adult levels within 5 to 7 days postnatal.*
Healthy, premature infants (30-36 weeks gestation) may have mildly decreased levels which reach adult levels in < or =90 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

AFP/8162: Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker, Serum

<6.0 ng/mL
Reference values are for nonpregnant subjects only; fetal production of AFP elevates values in pregnant women.
Range for newborns is not available, but concentrations over 100,000 ng/mL have been reported in normal newborns, and the values rapidly decline in the first 6 months of life.(See literature reference: Ped Res 1981;15:50-52) For further interpretive information, see Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) in Special Instructions.
Serum markers are not specific for malignancy, and values may vary by method.

MAFP/81169: Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP), Single Marker Screen, Maternal, Serum

NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS
An AFP multiple of the median (MoM) <2.5 is reported as screen negative. AFP MoMs > or =2.5 (singleton and twin pregnancies) are reported as screen positive.
 
An interpretive report will be provided.

AFPSF/8876: Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP), Spinal Fluid

<1.5 ng/mL
Values for alpha-fetoprotein in cerebrospinal fluid have not been formally established for newborns and infants. The available literature indicates that by 2 months of age, levels comparable to adults should be reached.(Ann Clin Biochem 2005;42:24-29)

AFPA/9950: Alpha-Fetoprotein, Amniotic Fluid

< or =2.0 multiples of median (MoM)

APGH/9003: Alpha-Subunit Pituitary Tumor Marker, Serum

PEDIATRIC
< or =5 days: < or =50 ng/mL
6 days-12 weeks: < or =10 ng/mL
3 months-17 years: < or =1.2 ng/mL
Tanner II-IV*: < or =1.2 ng/mL
 
ADULTS
Males: < or =0.5 ng/mL
Premenopausal females: < or =1.2 ng/mL
Postmenopausal females: < or =1.8 ng/mL
 
Pediatric and adult reference values based on Mayo studies.
 
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years and for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. For boys, there is no proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.

ALU/8828: Aluminum, 24 Hour, Urine

0-20 mcg/specimen
Reference values apply to all ages

ALUR/86377: Aluminum, Random, Urine

0-20 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages

AL/8373: Aluminum, Serum

0-6 ng/mL (all ages)
<60 ng/mL (dialysis patients-all ages)

AAMSD/60200: Amino Acids, Maple Syrup Urine Disease Panel, Plasma

ISOLEUCINE
< or =23 months: 31-105 nmol/mL
2-17 years: 30-111 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 36-107 nmol/mL
 
LEUCINE
< or =23 months: 48-175 nmol/mL
2-17 years: 51-196 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 68-183 nmol/mL
 
VALINE
< or =23 months: 83-300 nmol/mL
2-17 years: 106-320 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 136-309 nmol/mL
 
ALLO-ISOLEUCINE
< or =23 months: <2 nmol/mL
2-17 years: <3 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: <5 nmol/mL

AAQP/9265: Amino Acids, Quantitative, Plasma

Plasma Amino Acid Reference Values (nmol/mL)
Age Groups
<24 Months (n=191)
2-17 Years (n=441)
> or =18 Years (n=148)
Phosphoserine (PSer)
<109
<95
<18
Phosphoethanolamine (PEtN)
<6
<5
<12
Taurine (Tau)
37-177
38-153
42-156
Asparagine (Asn)
25-91
29-87
37-92
Serine (Ser)
69-271
71-208
63-187
Hydroxyproline (Hyp)
8-61
7-35
4-29
Glycine (Gly)
111-426
149-417
126-490
Glutamine (Gln)
316-1020
329-976
371-957
Aspartic Acid (Asp)
2-20
<11
<7
Ethanolamine (EtN)
<70
<64
<67
Histidine (His)
10-116
12-132
39-123
Threonine (Thr)
47-237
58-195
85-231
Citrulline (Cit)
9-38
11-45
17-46
Sarcosine (Sar)
<5
<5
<5
b-Alanine (bAla)
<28
<27
<29
Alanine (Ala)
139-474
144-557
200-579
Glutamic Acid (Glu)
31-202
22-131
13-113
1-Methylhistidine (1MHis)
<11
<20
<28
3-Methylhistidine (3MHis)
<1
<1
2-9
Argininosuccinic Acid (Asa)
<2
<2
<2
Carnosine (Car)
<13
<1
<1
Anserine (Ans)
<1
<1
<1
Homocitruline (Hcit)
<5
<2
<2
Arginine (Arg)
29-134
31-132
32-120
a-Aminoadipic Acid (Aad)
<4
<3
<3
g-Amino-n-butyric Acid (GABA)
<4
<3
<2
b-Aminoisobutyric Acid (bAib)
<9
<5
<5
a-Amino-n-butyric Acid (Abu)
7-28
7-31
9-37
Hydroxylysine (Hyl)
<4
<3
<2
Proline (Pro)
85-303
80-357
97-368
Ornithine (Orn)
20-130
22-97
38-130
Cystathionine (Cth)
<2
<2
<5
Cystine (Cys)
2-32
2-36
3-95
Lysine (Lys)
49-204
59-240
103-255
Methionine (Met)
11-35
11-37
4-44
Valine (Val)
83-300
106-320
136-309
Tyrosine (Tyr)
26-115
31-106
31-90
Homocystine (Hcy)
NA
NA
<5
Isoleucine (IIe)
31-105
30-111
36-107
Leucine (Leu)
48-175
51-196
68-183
Phenylalanine (Phe)
28-80
30-95
35-80
Tryptophan (Trp)
17-75
23-80
29-77
Alloisoleucine (Allolle)
<2
<3
<5
 

AAPD/60475: Amino Acids, Quantitative, Random, Urine

Urine Amino Acid Reference Values (nmol/mg creatinine)
Age Groups
< or =12 Months
13-35 Months
3-6 Years
7-8 Years
9-17 Years
> or =18 Years
(n=515)
(n=210)
(n=197)
(n=74)
(n=214)
(n=835)
Phosphoserine
PSer
 <1
 <1
 <1
 <1
 <1
 <1
Phosphoethanolamine
PEtN
15-341
33-342
19-164
12-118
<88
<48
Taurine
Tau
37-8300
64-3255
76-3519
50-2051
57-2235
24 -1531
Asparagine
Asn
25-1000
62-884
28-412
38-396
22-283
25-238
Serine
Ser
18-4483
284 -1959
179-1285
153-765
105-846
97-540
Hydroxyproline
Hyp
<2536
<89
<46
<19
<22
 <15
Glycine
Gly
362-18614
627-6914
412-5705
449-4492
316-4249
229-2989
Glutamine
Gln
139-2985
263 -2979
152-1325
164-1125
188-1365
93-686
Aspartic Acid
Asp
<64
<56
 <30
<9
 <11
<10
Ethanolamine
EtN
282-3782
256-947
193-643
137-564
158-596
95-471
Histidine
His
145-3833
427-3398
230-2635
268-2147
134-1983
81-1128
Threonine
Thr
25-1217
55-763
30-554
25-456
37-418
31-278
Citrulline
Cit
 <72
 <57
 <14
<9
<14
        <12
Sarcosine
Sar
 <75
 <12
<9
<2
<3
<3
Beta-Alanine
bAla
 <219
 <92
 <25
<25
<49
<52
Alanine
Ala
93-3007
101-1500
64-1299
44-814
51-696
56-518
Glutamic Acid
Glu
<243
12-128
<76
<39
<62
<34
1-Methylhistidine
1MHis
17-419
18-1629
10-1476
19-1435
12-1549
23-1339
3-Methylhistidine
3MHis
88-350
86-330
56-316
77-260
47-262
70-246
Argininosuccinic Acid
Asa
<77
<48
<37
<24
<69
<15
Carnosine
Car
27-1021
16-616
18-319
<161
<109
<35
Anserine
Ans
 <277
<820
<398
<141
<369
<38
Homocitrulline
Hcit
<295
11-158
<71
<62
<33
<30
Arginine
Arg
10-560
20-395
14-240
<134
<153
<114
Alpha-aminoadipic Acid
Aad
10-275
15-324
10-135
<84
<76
<47
Gamma Amino-n-butyric Acid
GABA
 <25
 <13
<11
 <6
<5
<5
Beta-aminoisobutyric Acid
bAib
18-3137
<980
15-1039
24-511
11-286
<301
Alpha-amino-n-butyric Acid
Abu
<63
<56
<38
 <30
<31
 <19
Hydroxylysine
Hyl
<150
<57
<34
<26
<31
<12
Proline
Pro
28-2029
<119
<78
<20
<28
<26
Ornithine
Orn
 <265
<70
<44
<17
<18
<25
Cystathionine
Cth
<302
<56
<26
<18
<44
 <30
Cystine
Cys
12-504
11-133
<130
<56
<104
10-98
Lysine
Lys
19-1988
25-743
14-307
17-276
10-240
15-271
Methionine
Met
 <41
<41
<25
 <23
<20
<16
Valine
Val
11-211
11-211
<139
16-91
<75
11-61
Tyrosine
Tyr
39-685
38-479
23-254
22-245
12-208
15-115
Isoleucine
Ile
<86
<78
<62
<34
<28
<22
Leucine
Leu
<200
15-167
12-100
13-73
<62
<51
Phenylalanine
Phe
14-280
34-254
20-150
21-106
11-111
13-70
Tryptophan
Trp
14-315
14-315
10-303
10-303
15-229
18-114
Allo-isoleucine
AlloIle
 <29
 <10
 <8
<8
<8
<7

AACSF/81934: Amino Acids, Quantitative, Spinal Fluid

CSF Amino Acid Reference Values (nmol/mL)
Age Groups
< or =31 Days
(n=73)
32 Days-23 Months
(n=88)
2-18 Years
(n=189)
> or =19 Years
(n=32)
Phosphoserine (PSer)
<1
<1
<1
<1
Phosphoethanolamine (PEtN)
<15
<10
<8
<7
Taurine (Tau)
8-48
<28
<13
<20
Asparagine (Asn)
8-34
5-16
<10
5-20
Serine (Ser)
44-136
26-71
21-51
19-40
Hydroxyproline (Hyp)
<7
<3
<1
<2
Glycine (Gly)
5-115
<33
<11
<35
Glutamine (Gln)
467-1832
301-1128
326-1092
380-1348
Aspartic Acid (Asp)
<1
<1
<1
<2
Ethanolamine (EtN)
11-193
7-155
7-153
7-153
Histidine (His)
11-70
9-28
9-21
9-28
Threonine (Thr)
32-143
11-77
14-38
23-57
Citrulline (Cit)
<11
<6
<3
<9
Sarcosine (Sar)
<1
<1
<1
<1
Beta-alanine (bAla)
<26
<25
<25
<25
Alanine (Ala)
24-124
16-53
12-34
19-60
Glutamic Acid (Glu)
<12
<3
<1
<4
1-Methylhistidine (1MHis)
<3
<1
<2
<3
3-Methylhistidine (3MHis)
<4
<1
<1
<2
Argininosuccinic Acid (Asa)
<1
<2
<1
<1
Carnosine (Car)
<1
<1
<1
<1
Anserine (Ans)
<9
<9
<7
<3
Homocitrulline (Hcit)
<3
<1
<1
<1
Arginine (Arg)
5-39
11-35
11-27
11-32
Alpha-aminoadipic Acid (Aad)
<1
<1
<1
<1
Gamma-amino-n-butyric Acid (GABA)
<1
<1
<1
<1
Beta-aminoisobutyric Acid (bAib)
<1
<1
<1
<1
Alpha-amino-n-butyric Acid (Abu)
<15
<6
<5
<14
Hydroxylysine (Hyl)
<1
<1
<1
<1
Proline (Pro)
<17
<6
<2
<6
Ornithine (Orn)
<24
<12
<6
<11
Cystathionine (Cth)
<1
<2
<1
<1
Cystine (Cys)
<2
<2
<1
<1
Lysine (Lys)
11-63
9-33
10-25
13-42
Methionine (Met)
<43
<9
<6
<10
Valine (Val)
14-61
9-28
8-20
11-40
Tyrosine (Tyr)
8-83
5-24
<17
5-17
Homocystine (Hcy)
<1
<1
<1
<1
Isoleucine (Ile)
<27
<13
<8
<17
Leucine (Leu)
12-41
6-21
7-16
7-29
Phenylalanine (Phe)
7-40
5-18
<12
7-21
Tryptophan (Trp)
<12
<6
<4
<4
Allo-isoleucine (AlloIle)
<3
<2
<2
<2

AAUCD/60202: Amino Acids, Urea Cycle Disorders Panel, Plasma

GLUTAMINE
< or =23 months: 316-1020 nmol/mL
2-17 years: 329-976 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 371-957 nmol/mL
 
ORNITHINE
< or =23 months: 20-130 nmol/mL
2-17 years: 22-97 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 38-130 nmol/mL
 
CITRULLINE
< or =23 months: 9-38 nmol/mL
2-17 years: 11-45 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 17-46 nmol/mL
 
ARGININE
< or =23 months: 29-134 nmol/mL
2-17 years: 31-132 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 32-120 nmol/mL
 
ARGININOSUCCINIC ACID
<2 nmol/mL
Reference value applies to all ages.

ALAUR/61547: Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA), Urine

<1 year: < or =10 nmol/mL
1-17 years: < or =20 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: < or =15 nmol/mL

AFC/80334: Amniotic Fluid Culture for Genetic Testing

Not applicable

AMPHM/84371: Amphetamine-Type Stimulants, Confirmation, Meconium

Negative
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
 
Cutoff concentrations:
AMPHETAMINE BY LC-MS/MS
>50 ng/g
 
METHAMPHETAMINE BY LC-MS/MS
>50 ng/g
 
3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYAMPHETAMINE BY LC-MS/MS
>50 ng/g
 
3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE BY LC-MS/MS
>50 ng/g
 
3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE BY LC-MS/MS
>50 ng/g

PAMY/80376: Amylase, Pancreatic, Serum

0-<24 months: 0-20 U/L
2-<18 years: 9-35 U/L
> or =18 years: 11-54 U/L

AMS/8352: Amylase, Total, Serum

0-30 days: 0-6 U/L                                                           
31-182 days: 1-17 U/L                                                       
183-365 days: 6-44 U/L                                                        
1-3 years: 8-79 U/L                                                           
4-17 years: 21-110 U/L                                                        
> or =18 years: 26-102 U/L

ANST/9709: Androstenedione, Serum

PEDIATRICS*
Premature infants
26-28 weeks, day 4: 92-282 ng/dL
31-35 weeks, day 4: 80-446 ng/dL
Full-term infants
1-7 days: 20-290 ng/dL
1 month-1 year: <69 ng/dL
 
Males*
Tanner Stages
Age (Years)
Reference Range (ng/dL)
Stage I (prepubertal)
<9.8
<51
Stage II
9.8-14.5
31-65
Stage III
10.7-15.4
50-100
Stage IV
11.8-16.2
48-140
Stage V
12.8-17.3
65-210
 
Females*
Tanner Stages
Age (Years)
Reference Range (ng/dL)
Stage I (prepubertal)
<9.2
<51
Stage II
9.2-13.7
42-100
Stage III
10.0-14.4
80-190
Stage IV
10.7-15.6
77-225
Stage V
11.8-18.6
80-240
*Source: Androstenedione. In Pediatric Reference Ranges. Fourth edition. Edited by SJ Soldin, C Brugnara, EC Wong. Washington, DC, AACC Press, 2003, pp 32-34
 
ADULTS
Males: 40-150 ng/dL
Females: 30-200 ng/dL

ACE/8285: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Serum

> or =18 years: 8-53 U/L
The reference interval for pediatric patients may be up to 50% higher than that of adults.                                         

ADNAS/80204: Anti-DNase B Titer, Serum

<5 years: < or =250 U/mL
5-17 years < or =375 U/mL
> or =18 years: < or =300 U/mL

ADNAS/200128: Anti-DNase B Titer, Serum

<5 years: < or =250 U/mL
5-17 years < or =375 U/mL
> or =18 years: < or =300 U/mL

ENAE/89035: Antibody to Extractable Nuclear Antigen Evaluation, Serum

SS-A/Ro ANTIBODIES, IgG
<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
SS-B/La ANTIBODIES, IgG
<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
Sm ANTIBODIES, IgG
<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
RNP ANTIBODIES, IgG
<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
Scl 70 ANTIBODIES, IgG
<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
Jo 1 ANTIBODIES, IgG
<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

AMH/89711: Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum

Males
<24 months: 14-466 ng/mL
24 months-12 years: 7.4-243 ng/mL
>12 years: 0.7-19 ng/mL
Females
<24 months: <4.7 ng/mL
24 months-12 years: <8.8 ng/mL
13-45 years: 0.9-9.5 ng/mL
>45 years: <1.0 ng/mL

VASC/83012: Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Vasculitis Panel, Serum

MYELOPEROXIDASE ANTIBODIES, IgG
<0.4 U (negative)
0.4-0.9 U (equivocal)
> or =1.0 U (positive) 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
PROTEINASE 3 ANTIBODIES, IgG
<0.4 U (negative)
0.4-0.9 U (equivocal)
> or =1.0 U (positive) 
Reference values apply to all ages.

ANA2/9026: Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA), Serum

< or =1.0 U (negative)
1.1-2.9 U (weakly positive)
3.0-5.9 U (positive)
> or =6.0 U (strongly positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

ASO/80205: Antistrep-O Titer, Serum

<5 years: < or =70 IU/mL
5-17 years: < or =640 IU/mL                
> or =18 years: < or =530 IU/mL

ASO/200129: Antistrep-O Titer, Serum

<5 years: < or =70 IU/mL
5-17 years: < or =640 IU/mL                
> or =18 years: < or =530 IU/mL

ATTF/9030: Antithrombin Activity, Plasma

> or =6 months-adults: 80-130%
Normal, full-term newborn infants may have decreased levels (> or =35-40%), which reach adult levels by 90 days postnatal.*
Healthy, premature infants (30-36 weeks gestation) may have decreased levels which reach adult levels by 180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

ATTI/9031: Antithrombin Antigen, Plasma

Adults: 80-130%
Normal, full-term newborn infants may have decreased levels (> or =35-40%) which reach adult levels by 180 days postnatal.*
Healthy, premature infants (30-36 weeks gestation) may have decreased levels which reach adult levels by 180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

AWNS/87814: Arbovirus and West Nile Antibody Panel, Serum

CALIFORNIA VIRUS (La CROSSE) ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
WEST NILE VIRUS
IgG: negative
IgM: negative
Reference values apply to all ages.

AWNC/87813: Arbovirus and West Nile Antibody Panel, Spinal Fluid

CALIFORNIA VIRUS (La CROSSE) ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
WEST NILE VIRUS
IgG: negative
IgM: negative
Reference values apply to all ages.

ARBOP/83267: Arbovirus Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Serum

CALIFORNIA VIRUS (La CROSSE) ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10 
Reference values apply to all ages.

ABOPC/83897: Arbovirus Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid

CALIFORNIA VIRUS (La CROSSE) ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10
Reference values apply to all ages.

ASFR/80375: Arsenic Fractionation, 24 Hour, Urine

INORGANIC ARSENIC
0-24 mcg/specimen 
Reference values apply to all ages.

ASFRU/84679: Arsenic Fractionation, Random, Urine

INORGANIC ARSENIC
0-24 mcg/L 
Reference values apply to all ages.

ASU/8644: Arsenic, 24 Hour, Urine

0-35 mcg/specimen
Reference values apply to all ages.

ASB/8645: Arsenic, Blood

0-12 ng/mL 
Reference values apply to all ages.

ASHA/8651: Arsenic, Hair

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-0.9 mcg/g of hair

ASNA/89848: Arsenic, Nails

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-0.9 mcg/g of nails

ASRU/89889: Arsenic, Random, Urine

0-35 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

ASCRU/89890: Arsenic/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

0-35 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values apply to all ages.

AST/8360: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) (GOT), Serum

Males
0-11 months: not established
1-13 years: 8-60 U/L
> or =14 years: 8-48 U/L
Females
0-11 months: not established
1-13 years: 8-50 U/L
> or =14 years: 8-43 U/L

SASP/9678: Aspergillus fumigatus, IgG Antibodies, Serum

<4 years: not established
> or =4 years: < or =102 mg/L

ALDP/33743: Autoimmune Liver Disease Panel, Serum

SMOOTH MUSCLE ANTIBODIES
Negative
If positive, results are titered. 
Reference values apply to all ages 
 
MITOCHONDRIAL ANTIBODIES (M2)
Negative: <0.1 Units
Borderline: 0.1-0.3 Units
Weakly positive: 0.4-0.9 Units
Positive: > or =1.0 Units 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA2)
Negative: < or =1.0 Units
Weakly positive: 1.1-2.9 Units
Positive: 3.0-5.9 Units
Strongly positive: > or =6.0 Units
Reference values apply to all ages.

FBALL/81616: B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), FISH

An interpretive report will be provided.

IABCS/88800: B-Cell Phenotyping Profile for Immunodeficiency and Immune Competence Assessment, Blood

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

BNP/83873: B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), Plasma

Males
< or =45 years: < or =35 pg/mL
46 years: < or =36 pg/mL
47 years: < or =37 pg/mL
48 years: < or =38 pg/mL
49 years: < or =39 pg/mL
50 years: < or =40 pg/mL
51 years: < or =41 pg/mL
52 years: < or =42 pg/mL
53 years: < or =43 pg/mL
54 years: < or =45 pg/mL
55 years: < or =46 pg/mL
56 years: < or =47 pg/mL
57 years: < or =48 pg/mL
58 years: < or =49 pg/mL
59 years: < or =51 pg/mL
60 years: < or =52 pg/mL
61 years: < or =53 pg/mL
62 years: < or =55 pg/mL
63 years: < or =56 pg/mL
64 years: < or =57 pg/mL
65 years: < or =59 pg/mL
66 years: < or =60 pg/mL
67 years: < or =62 pg/mL
68 years: < or =64 pg/mL
69 years: < or =65 pg/mL
70 years: < or =67 pg/mL
71 years: < or =69 pg/mL
72 years: < or =70 pg/mL
73 years: < or =72 pg/mL
74 years: < or =74 pg/mL
75 years: < or =76 pg/mL
76 years: < or =78 pg/mL
77 years: < or =80 pg/mL
78 years: < or =82 pg/mL
79 years: < or =84 pg/mL
80 years: < or =86 pg/mL
81 years: < or =88 pg/mL
82 years: < or =91 pg/mL
> or =83 years: < or =93 pg/mL
Females
< or =45 years: < or =64 pg/mL
46 years: < or =66 pg/mL
47 years: < or =67 pg/mL
48 years: < or =69 pg/mL
49 years: < or =71 pg/mL
50 years: < or =73 pg/mL
51 years: < or =74 pg/mL
52 years: < or =76 pg/mL
53 years: < or =78 pg/mL
54 years: < or =80 pg/mL
55 years: < or =82 pg/mL
56 years: < or =84 pg/mL
57 years: < or =87 pg/mL
58 years: < or =89 pg/mL
59 years: < or =91 pg/mL
60 years: < or =93 pg/mL
61 years: < or =96 pg/mL
62 years: < or =98 pg/mL
63 years: < or =101 pg/mL
64 years: < or =103 pg/mL
65 years: < or =106 pg/mL
66 years: < or =109 pg/mL
67 years: < or =112 pg/mL
68 years: < or =114 pg/mL
69 years: < or =117 pg/mL
70 years: < or =120 pg/mL
71 years: < or =123 pg/mL
72 years: < or =127 pg/mL
73 years: < or =130 pg/mL
74 years: < or =133 pg/mL
75 years: < or =137 pg/mL
76 years: < or =140 pg/mL
77 years: < or =144 pg/mL
78 years: < or =147 pg/mL
79 years: < or =151 pg/mL
80 years: < or =155 pg/mL
81 years: < or =159 pg/mL
82 years: < or =163 pg/mL
> or =83 years: < or =167 pg/mL

AB2GP/86180: Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies, IgA, Serum

<10.0 U/mL (negative)
10.0-14.9 U/mL (borderline)
> or =15.0 U/mL (positive)
Results are expressed in arbitrary units. 
Reference values apply to all ages.

B2GP1/88894: Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies, IgG, IgM, and IgA, Serum

<10.0 U/mL (negative)
10.0-14.9 U/mL (borderline)
> or =15.0 U/mL (positive)
Results are expressed in arbitrary units and apply to IgG, IgM, and IgA values. 
Reference values apply to all ages.

GB2GP/86182: Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<10.0 U/mL (negative)
10.0-14.9 U/mL (borderline)
> or =15.0 U/mL (positive)
Results are expressed in arbitrary units.
Reference values apply to all ages.

MB2GP/86181: Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies, IgM, Serum

<10.0 U/mL (negative)
10.0-14.9 U/mL (borderline)
> or =15.0 U/mL (positive)
Results are expressed in arbitrary units. 
Reference values apply to all ages.

800087/800087: Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Quantitative, Serum

Children(1,2)
Males
Birth-3 months: < or =50 IU/L*
>3 months-<18 years: <1.4 IU/L
Females
Birth-3 months: < or =50 IU/L*
>3 months-<18 years: <1.0 IU/L
*hCG, produced in the placenta, partially passes the placental barrier. Newborn serum beta-hCG concentrations are approximately 1/400th of the corresponding maternal serum concentrations, resulting in neonate beta-hCG levels of 10-50 IU/L at birth. Clearance half-life is approximately 2-3 days. Therefore, by 3 months of age, levels comparable to adults should be reached.
 
Adults (97.5th percentile)
Males: <1.4 IU/L
Females
Premenopausal, nonpregnant: <1.0 IU/L
Postmenopausal: <7.0 IU/L
 
Pediatric reference values based on:
1. Chen RJ, Huang SC, Chow SN, Hsieh CY: Human chorionic gonadotropin pattern in maternal circulation. Amniotic fluid and fetal circulation in late pregnancy. J Reprod Med 1993;38:151-154
2. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Gobel U: Diagnostic value of alpha 1-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in infancy and childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2001;18:11-26

BHCG/61718: Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Quantitative, Serum

Children(1,2)
Males
Birth-3 months: < or =50 IU/L*
>3 months-<18 years: <1.4 IU/L
Females
Birth-3 months: < or =50 IU/L*
>3 months-<18 years: <1.0 IU/L
*hCG, produced in the placenta, partially passes the placental barrier. Newborn serum beta-hCG concentrations are approximately 1/400th of the corresponding maternal serum concentrations, resulting in neonate beta-hCG levels of 10-50 IU/L at birth. Clearance half-life is approximately 2-3 days. Therefore, by 3 months of age, levels comparable to adults should be reached.
 
Adults (97.5th percentile)
Males: <1.4 IU/L
Females
Premenopausal, nonpregnant: <1.0 IU/L
Postmenopausal: <7.0 IU/L
 
Pediatric reference values based on:
1. Chen RJ, Huang SC, Chow SN, Hsieh CY: Human chorionic gonadotropin pattern in maternal circulation. Amniotic fluid and fetal circulation in late pregnancy. J Reprod Med 1993;38:151-154
2. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Gobel U: Diagnostic value of alpha 1-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in infancy and childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2001;18:11-26

HCO3/876: Bicarbonate, Serum

Males
12-24 months: 17-25 mmol/L
3 years: 18-26 mmol/L
4-5 years: 19-27 mmol/L
6-7 years: 20-28 mmol/L
8-17 years: 21-29 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 22-29 mmol/L
Females
1-3 years: 18-25 mmol/L
4-5 years: 19-26 mmol/L
6-7 years: 20-27 mmol/L
8-9 years: 21-28 mmol/L
> or =10 years: 22-29 mmol/L
 
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.

BILID/81787: Bilirubin Direct, Serum

> or =12 months: 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

AFBIL/8390: Bilirubin, Amniotic Fluid

Interpretation of fetal risk is dependent upon gestational age.
Refer to either the Queenan Curve (gestational age <27 weeks) or the Liley Chart (gestational age >27 weeks) listed under Delta OD of Bilirubin in Amniotic Fluid in Special Instructions.

BILI3/8452: Bilirubin, Serum

DIRECT
> or =12 months: 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.
 
TOTAL
Males
12 months: 0.1-0.9 mg/dL
> or =24 months: 0.1-1.0 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.
Females
1-11 years: 0.1-0.9 mg/dL
> or =12 years: 0.1-1.0 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

BILIT/81785: Bilirubin, Total, Serum

Males
12 months: 0.1-0.9 mg/dL
> or =24 months: 0.1-1.0 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.
Females
1-11 years: 0.1-0.9 mg/dL
> or =12 years: 0.1-1.0 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

BUN/81793: Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Serum

Males
1-17 years: 7-20 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 8-24 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.
Females
1-17 years: 7-20 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 6-21 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

BAP/82985: Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum

Males
<2 years: 25-221 mcg/L
2-9 years: 27-148 mcg/L
10-13 years: 35-169 mcg/L
14-17 years: 13-111 mcg/L
Adults: < or =20 mcg/L
Females
<2 years: 28-187 mcg/L
2-9 years: 31-152 mcg/L
10-13 years: 29-177 mcg/L
14-17 years: 7-41 mcg/L
Adults
Premenopausal: < or =14 mcg/L
Postmenopausal: < or =22 mcg/L

BMNA/81976: Breast Milk Nutritional Analysis

 
Post-Partum
Day 1
Post-Partum
Day 36
Glucose
15-40 mg/dL
15-40 mg/dL
Lactose
2,100-6,000 mg/dL
2,700-8,000 mg/dL
Triglycerides
420-3,900 mg/dL
1,600-6,400 mg/dL
Proteins
1,200-4,700 mg/dL
880-1,920 mg/dL

CPR/8804: C-Peptide, Serum

1.1-4.4 ng/mL
Reference intervals have not been formally verified in-house for pediatric patients. The published literature indicates that reference intervals for adult and pediatric patients are comparable.

CDOMB/89539: Cadmium for Occupational Monitoring, Blood

0.0-4.9 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

CDU/8678: Cadmium, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-1.3 mcg/specimen

CDB/8682: Cadmium, Blood

0.0-4.9 ng/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

CDRU/60156: Cadmium, Random, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-1.3 mcg/L

CAI/8378: Calcium, Ionized, Serum

Males
1-19 years: 5.1-5.9 mg/dL
> or =20 years: 4.8-5.7 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
Females
1-17 years: 5.1-5.9 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 4.8-5.7 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
 
Pediatric ranges derived for GEM method from analytic comparison to reference method in: Snell J, Greeley C, Colaco A, et al: Pediatric reference ranges for arterial pH, whole blood electrolytes and glucose. Clin Chem 1993;39:1173.

CAS/8432: Calcium, Total, Serum

Males
1-14 years: 9.6-10.6 mg/dL
15-16 years: 9.5-10.5 mg/dL
17-18 years: 9.5-10.4 mg/dL
19-21 years: 9.3-10.3 mg/dL
> or =22 years: 8.9-10.1 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.
Females
1-11 years: 9.6-10.6 mg/dL
12-14 years: 9.5-10.4 mg/dL
15-18 years: 9.1-10.3 mg/dL
> or =19 years: 8.9-10.1 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

CACRU/89604: Calcium/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

CALCIUM/CREATININE RATIO
0-12 months: <2,100 mg/g
13-24 months: <450 mg/g
25 months-5 years: <350 mg/g
6-10 years: <300 mg/g
11-18 years: <260 mg/g
> or =19 years: <220 mg/g

CACU/89777: Calcium/Creatinine, 24 Hour, Urine

CALCIUM, 24 HOUR, URINE
Males: 25-300 mg/specimen*
Females: 20-275 mg/specimen*
Hypercalciuria: >350 mg/specimen
*Values are for persons with average calcium intake (ie, 600-800 mg/day).
 
CALCIUM/CREATININE RATIO
0-12 months: <2,100 mg/g
13-24 months: <450 mg/g
25 months-5 years: <350 mg/g
6-10 years: <300 mg/g
11-18 years: <260 mg/g
> or =19 years: <220 mg/g

CAVPC/83900: California Virus (La Crosse) Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid

IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10
Reference values apply to all ages.

CARN/8802: Carnitine, Plasma

Total Carnitine (TC)
Free Carnitine (FC)
Acylcarnitine (AC)
AC/FC Ratio
Age Group
Range*
Range*
Range*
Range
1 day
23-68
12-36
7-37
0.4-1.7
2-7 days
17-41
10-21
3-24
0.2-1.4
8-31 days
19-59
12-46
4-15
0.1-0.7
32 days-12 months
38-68
27-49
7-19
0.2-0.5
13 months-6 years
35-84
24-63
4-28
0.1-0.8
7-10 years
28-83
22-66
3-32
0.1-0.9
11-17 years
34-77
22-65
4-29
0.1-0.9
> or =18 years
34-78
25-54
5-30
0.1-0.8
*Values expressed as nmol/mL
Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, Werner E, Penn D: Carnitine plasma concentrations in 353 metabolically healthy children. Eur J Pediatr 1988;147:356-360
Used with permission of European Journal of Pediatrics, Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc., Secaucus, NJ

CARNS/60449: Carnitine, Serum

 
Total Carnitine (TC)
Free Carnitine (FC)
Acylcarnitine (AC)
AC/FC Ratio
Age Group
Range*
Range*
Range*
Range
1 day
23-68
12-36
7-37
0.4-1.7
2-7 days
17-41
10-21
3-24
0.2-1.4
8-31 days
19-59
12-46
4-15
0.1-0.7
32 days-12 months
38-68
27-49
7-19
0.2-0.5
13 months-6 years
35-84
24-63
4-28
0.1-0.8
7-10 years
28-83
22-66
3-32
0.1-0.9
11-17 years
34-77
22-65
4-29
0.1-0.9
> or =18 years
34-78
25-54
5-30
0.1-0.8
*Values expressed as nmol/mL
Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, Werner E, Penn D: Carnitine plasma concentrations in 353 metabolically healthy children. Eur J Pediatr 1988;147:356-360
Used with permission of European Journal of Pediatrics, Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc., Secaucus, NJ

CATU/9276: Catecholamine Fractionation, Free, 24 Hour, Urine

EPINEPHRINE
 <1 year: <2.6 mcg/24 hours
1 year: <3.6 mcg/24 hours
2-3 years: <6.1 mcg/24 hours
4-9 years: 0.2-10.0 mcg/24 hours
10-15 years: 0.5-20.0 mcg/24 hours
> or =16 years: <21 mcg/24 hours
 
NOREPINEPHRINE
 <1 year: <11 mcg/24 hours
1 year: 1-17 mcg/24 hours
2-3 years: 4-29 mcg/24 hours
4-6 years: 8-45 mcg/24 hours
7-9 years: 13-65 mcg/24 hours
> or =10 years: 15-80 mcg/24 hours
 
DOPAMINE
<1 year: <86 mcg/24 hours
1 year: 10-140 mcg/24 hours
2-3 years: 40-260 mcg/24 hours
> or =4 years: 65-400 mcg/24 hours

CBC/9109: CBC with Differential, Blood

RED BLOOD CELL COUNT (RBC)
Males
Birth: 3.90-5.50 x 10(12)/L
1-7 days: 3.90-6.00 x 10(12)/L
8-14 days: 3.60-6.00 x 10(12)/L
15 days-1 month: 3.00-5.50  x 10(12)/L
2-5 months: 3.10-4.50 x 10(12)/L
6-11 months: 3.70-6.00 x 10(12)/L
1-2 years: 3.70-6.00 x 10(12)/L
2 years: 4.10-5.10 x 10(12)/L
3-5 years: 4.10-5.30 x 10(12)/L
6-11 years: 4.20-5.10 x 10(12)/L
12-15 years: 4.40-5.50 x 10(12)/L
Adults:  4.32-5.72 x 10(12)/L
Females
Birth:  3.90-5.50 x 10(12)/L
1-7 days: 3.90-6.00 x 10(12)/L
8-14 days: 3.60-6.00 x 10(12)/L
15 days-1 month:  3.00-5.50 x 10(12)/L  
2-5 months: 3.10-4.50 x 10(12)/L
6-11 months: 3.70-6.00x 10(12)/L
1-2 years: 3.70-6.00 x 10(12)/L
2 years: 4.10-5.10 x 10(12)/L  
3-5 years: 4.10-5.20 x 10(12)/L
6-11 years: 4.10-5.30 x 10(12)/L
12-15 years: 4.10-5.20 x 10(12)/L
Adults: 3.90-5.03 x 10(12)/L
 
HEMOGLOBIN
Males
Birth -7 days:  13.5-22.0 g/dL
8-14 days: 12.5-21.0 g/dL
15 days-1 month: 10.0-20.0 g/dL
2-5 months: 10.0-14.0 g/dL
6 months-2 years: 10.5-13.5 g/dL
2 years: 11.0-14.0 g/dL
3-5 years:11.0-14.5 g/dL
6-11 years: 12.0-14.0 g/dL
12-15 years: 12.8-16.0 g/dL
Adults: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Females
Birth-7 days: 13.5-22.0 g/dL
8-14 days: 12.5-21.0 g/dL
15 days-1 month: 10.0-20.0 g/dL
2-5 months: 10.0-14.0 g/dL
6 months-2 years: 10.5-13.5 g/dL
2 years: 11.0-14.0 g/dL  
3-5 years: 11.8-14.7 g/dL
6-11 years: 12.0-14.5 g/dL
12-15 years: 12.2-14.8 g/dL
Adults: 12.0-15.5 g/dL
 
HEMATOCRIT
Males
Birth-7 days: 42.0-60.0%
8-14 days: 39.0-60.0%
15 days-1 month:  31.0-55.0%
2-5 months: 28.0-42.0%
6 months-1 year: 33.0-40.0%
2 years: 33.0-42.0%
3-5 years: 33.0-43.0%
6-11 years: 35.8-42.4%
12-15 years: 37.3-47.3%
Adults: 38.8-50.0%
Females
Birth-7 days: 42.0-60.0%
8-14 days: 39.0-60.0%
15 days-1 month: 31.0-55.0%  
2-5 months: 28.0-42.0%
6 months-1 year: 33.0-40.0%
2 years: 33.0-42.0%
3-5 years: 35.0-44.0%
6-11 years: 35.7-43.0%
12-15 years: 36.3-43.4%
Adults: 34.9-44.5%
 
MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME (MCV)
Males
Birth:  98.0-120.0 fL
1-7 days: 88.0-120.0 fL
 8-14 days: 86.0-120.0 fL
15 days-1 month: 85.0-110.0 fL  
2-5 months: 77.0-110.0 fL
6 months-5 years: 74.0-89.0 fL
6-11 years: 76.5-90.6 fL
12-15 years: 81.4-91.9 fL
Adults: 81.2-95.1 fL
Females
Birth:   98.0-120.0 fL
1-7 days: 88.0-120.0 fL
8-14 days: 86.0-120.0 fL
15 days-1 month: 85.0-110.0 fL  
2-5 months: 77.0-110.0 fL
6 months-5 years: 74.0-89.0 fL
6-11 years: 78.5-90.4 fL
12-15 years: 79.9-92.3 fL
Adults: 81.6-98.3 fL
 
RED CELL DISTRIBUTION WIDTH (RDW)
Males
<2 years: not established  
2 years: 12.0-14.5%
3-5 years: 12.0-14.0%
6-11 years: 12.0-14.0%
12-15 years: 11.6-13.8%
Adults: 11.8-15.6%
Females
<2 years: not established
2 years: 12.0-14.5%
3-5 years: 12.0-14.0%
6-11 years: 11.6-13.4%
12-15 years: 11.2-13.5%
Adults: 11.9-15.5%
 
WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT (WBC)
Males
Birth:  9.0-30.0 x 10(9)/L
1-7 days: 9.4-34.0 x 10(9)/L
8-14 days: 5.0-21.0 x 10(9)/L
15 days-1 month:  5.0-20.0 x 10(9)/L
2-5 months: 5.0-15.0 x 10(9)/L
6 months-2 years: 6.0-11.0 x 10(9)/L
2 years: 5.0-12.0 x 10(9)/L
3-5 years: 4.0-12.0 x 10(9)/L
6-11 years: 3.4-9.5 x 10(9)/L
12-15 years: 3.6-9.1 x 10(9)/L
Adults: 3.5-10.5 x 10(9)/L
Females
Birth:  9.0-30.0 x 10(9)/L
1-7 days: 9.4-34.0 x 10(9)/L
8-14 days: 5.0-21.0 x 10(9)/L
15 days-1 month: 5.0-20.0 x 10(9)/L
2-5 months: 5.0-15.0 x 10(9)/L
6 months-2 years: 6.0-11.0 x 10(9)/L
2 years: 5.0-12.0 x 10(9)/L
3-5 years: 4.0-12.0 x 10(9)/L
6-11 years: 3.4-10.8 x 10(9)/L
12-15 years: 4.1-8.9 x 10(9)/L
Adults: 3.5-10.5 x 10(9)/L
 
NEUTROPHILS
Birth:  9.00-26.00 x 10(9)/L
1-7 days: 1.50-10.00 x 10(9)/L
8-14 days: 1.00-9.50 x 10(9)/L
15 days-1 month: 1.00-9.00 x 10(9)/L
2-5 months: 1.00-8.50 x 10(9)/L
6 months–5 years: 1.50-8.50 x 10(9)/L
6-11 years: 1.50-8.50 x 10(9)/L
12-15 years: 1.80-8.00 x 10(9)/L
Adults: 1.70-7.00 x 10(9)/L
 
LYMPHOCYTES
Birth:  2.00-11.00 x 10(9)/L
1-7 days: 2.00-11.00 x 10(9)/L
8-14 days: 2.00-17.00 x 10(9)/L
15 days-1 month: 2.50-16.50 x 10(9)/L
2-5 months: 4.00-13.50 x 10(9)/L
6 months–11 months: 4.00-10.50 x 10(9)/L
1-5 years: 1.50-7.00 x 10(9)/L
6-11 years: 1.50-6.50 x 10(9)/L
12-15 years: 1.20-5.20 x 10(9)/L
Adults: 0.90-2.90 x 10(9)/L
 
MONOCYTES
Birth-14 days: 0.40-1.80 x 10(9)/L
15 days-11 months: 0.05-1.10 x 10(9)/L
1-15 years: 0.00-0.80 x 10(9)/L
Adults: 0.30-0.90 x 10(9)/L
 
EOSINOPHILS
Birth–5 months: 0.02-0.85 x 10(9)/L
6 months–11 months: 0.05-0.70 x 10(9)/L
1-5 years: 0.0-0.65 x 10(9)/L
6-15 years: 0.00-0.50 x 10(9)/L
Adults: 0.05-0.50 x 10(9)/L
 
BASOPHILS
Birth-5 months: 0.00-0.60 x 10(9)/L
6 months–16 years: 0.00-0.20 x 10(9)/L
> or =17 years: 0.00-0.30 x 10(9)/L
 
PLATELETS
Birth-5 months: 150-350  x 10(9)/L
> or =6 months: 150-450 x 10(9)/L

TCD4/84348: CD4 Count for Immune Monitoring, Blood

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

CD4NY/28334: CD4 Count for Monitoring, New York, Blood

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

CD4RT/89504: CD4 T-Cell Recent Thymic Emigrants (RTE)

CD4 ABSOLUTE
Males
1 month-17 years: 153-1,745 cells/mcL
18-70 years: 290-1,175 cells/mcL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <30 days of age.
Reference values have not been established for patients that are >70 years of age.
Females
1 month-17 years: 582-1,630 cells/mcL
18-70 years: 457-1,766 cells/mcL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <30 days of age.
Reference values have not been established for patients that are >70 years of age.
 
CD4 RTE %
Males
1 month-17 years: 19.4-60.9%
18-25 years: 6.4-51.0%
26-55 years: 6.4-41.7%
> or =56 years: 6.4-27.7%
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <30 days of age.
Reference values have not been established for patients that are >70 years of age.
Females
1 month-17 years: 25.8-68.0%
18-25 years: 6.4-51.0%
26-55 years: 6.4-41.7%
> or =56 years: 6.4-27.7%
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <30 days of age.
Reference values have not been established for patients that are >70 years of age.
 
CD4 RTE ABSOLUTE
Males
1 month-17 years: 50.0-926.0 cells/mcL
18-70 years: 42.0-399.0 cells/mcL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <30 days of age.
Reference values have not been established for patients that are >70 years of age.
Females
1 month-17 years: 170.0-1,007.0 cells/mcL
18-70 years: 42.0-832.0 cells/mcL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <30 days of age.
Reference values have not been established for patients that are >70 years of age.

GLICP/89369: CD8 T-Cell Immune Competence Panel, Global

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

CDCOM/89201: Celiac Disease Comprehensive Cascade

IMMUNOGLOBULIN A (IgA)
0-<5 months: 7-37 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 16-50 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 27-66 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 36-79 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 27-246 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 29-256 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 34-274 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 42-295 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 52-319 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 60-337 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 61-356 mg/dL
 
HLA-DQ TYPING
Presence of DQ2 or DQ8 alleles associated with celiac disease

CDSP/89199: Celiac Disease Serology Cascade

Immunoglobulin A
0-<5 months: 7-37 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 16-50 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 27-66 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 36-79 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 27-246 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 29-256 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 34-274 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 42-295 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 52-319 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 60-337 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 61-356 mg/dL

CMA/9278: Centromere Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

SFIN/8009: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) IgG Index

CSF index: 0.00-0.85
CSF IgG: 0.0-8.1 mg/dL
CSF albumin: 0.0-27.0 mg/dL
Serum IgG
0-4 months: 100-334 mg/dL
5-8 months: 164-588 mg/dL
9-14 months: 246-904 mg/dL
15-23 months: 313-1,170 mg/dL
2-3 years: 295-1,156 mg/dL
4-6 years: 386-1,470 mg/dL
7-9 years: 462-1,682 mg/dL
10-12 years: 503-1,719 mg/dL
13-15 years: 509-1,580 mg/dL
16-17 years: 487-1,327 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 767-1,590 mg/dL
Serum albumin: 3,200-4,800 mg/dL
CSF IgG/albumin: 0.00-0.21
Serum IgG/albumin: 0.0-0.4
CSF IgG synthesis rate: 0-12 mg/24 hours

CERE/8364: Ceruloplasmin, Serum

Males
0-17 years: 14.0-41.0 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 15.0-30.0 mg/dL
Females
0-17 years: 14.0-41.0 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 16.0-45.0 mg/dL

CL/8460: Chloride, Serum

1-17 years: 102-112 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 100-108 mmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

HDCH/8429: Cholesterol, HDL, Serum

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein [HDL], and low density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) in adults ages 18 and up:
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low (removed HDL): <40 mg/dL
Normal: 40-60 mg/dL
High: >60 mg/dL
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in children ages 2-17:
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low HDL: <40 mg/dL
Borderline low: 40-59 mg/dL
Normal: > or =60 mg/dL
 
Also see age and sex adjusted reference values in Cholesterol, HDL-Percentile Ranking in Lipids and Lipoproteins in Blood Plasma (Serum) in Special Instructions.

CHOL/8320: Cholesterol, Total, Serum

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein [HDL], and low density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) in adults ages 18 and up:
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <200 mg/dL
Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL
High: > or =240 mg/dL
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in children ages 2-17:
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <170 mg/dL
Borderline high: 170-199 mg/dL
High: > or =200 mg/dL
 
Also see age and sex adjusted reference values in Total Cholesterol-Percentile Ranking in Lipids and Lipoproteins in Blood Plasma (Serum) in Special Instructions.

CHLE/8324: Cholesteryl Esters, Serum

60-80% of total cholesterol
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

CRU/8593: Chromium, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-7.9 mcg/specimen

CGAK/34641: Chromogranin A, Serum

<93 ng/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

CMAPD/62662: Chromosomal Microarray, Prenatal, Amniotic Fluid/Chorionic Villus Sampling

An interpretive report will be provided.

AF/8426: Chromosome Analysis, Amniotic Fluid

46,XX or 46,XY. No apparent chromosome abnormality.
An interpretative report will be provided.

CITR/9329: Citrate Excretion, 24 Hour, Urine

0-19 years: not established
20 years: 150-1,191 mg/specimen
21 years: 157-1,191 mg/specimen
22 years: 164-1,191 mg/specimen
23 years: 171-1,191 mg/specimen
24 years: 178-1,191 mg/specimen
25 years: 186-1,191 mg/specimen
26 years: 193-1,191 mg/specimen
27 years: 200-1,191 mg/specimen
28 years: 207-1,191 mg/specimen
29 years: 214-1,191 mg/specimen
30 years: 221-1,191 mg/specimen
31 years: 228-1,191 mg/specimen
32 years: 235-1,191 mg/specimen
33 years: 242-1,191 mg/specimen
34 years: 250-1,191 mg/specimen
35 years: 257-1,191 mg/specimen
36 years: 264-1,191 mg/specimen
37 years: 271-1,191 mg/specimen
38 years: 278-1,191 mg/specimen
39 years: 285-1,191 mg/specimen
40 years: 292-1,191 mg/specimen
41 years: 299-1,191 mg/specimen
42 years: 306-1,191 mg/specimen
43 years: 314-1,191 mg/specimen
44 years: 321-1,191 mg/specimen
45 years: 328-1,191 mg/specimen
46 years: 335-1,191 mg/specimen
47 years: 342-1,191 mg/specimen
48 years: 349-1,191 mg/specimen
49 years: 356-1,191 mg/specimen
50 years: 363-1,191 mg/specimen
51 years: 370-1,191 mg/specimen
52 years: 378-1,191 mg/specimen
53 years: 385-1,191 mg/specimen
54 years: 392-1,191 mg/specimen
55 years: 399-1,191 mg/specimen
56 years: 406-1,191 mg/specimen
57 years: 413-1,191 mg/specimen
58 years: 420-1,191 mg/specimen
59 years: 427-1,191 mg/specimen
60 years: 434-1,191 mg/specimen
>60 years: not established

RCITR/84773: Citrate Excretion, Pediatric, Random, Urine

No established reference values

F_2/9121: Coagulation Factor II Activity Assay, Plasma

Adults: 75-145%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =25%) which may remain below adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
 *See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

F2IS/7805: Coagulation Factor II Inhibitor Screen, Plasma

FACTOR II ACTIVITY ASSAY
Adults: 75-145%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =25%) which may remain below adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.
 
FACTOR II INHIBITOR SCREEN
Negative

F_9/9065: Coagulation Factor IX Activity Assay, Plasma

Adults: 65-140%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =20%) which may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

FACTV/9054: Coagulation Factor V Activity Assay, Plasma

Adults: 70-165%
Normal, full-term newborn infants may have borderline low or mildly decreased levels (> or =30% to 35%) which reach adult levels within 21 days postnatal. Healthy premature infants (30-36 weeks gestation) may have borderline low or mildly decreased levels.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

F5IS/7807: Coagulation Factor V Inhibitor Screen, Plasma

FACTOR V ACTIVITY ASSAY
Adults: 75-165%
Normal, full-term newborn infants may have borderline low or mildly decreased levels (> or =30-35%) which reach adult levels within 21 days postnatal.*
Healthy premature infants (30-36 weeks gestation) may have borderline low or mildly decreased levels.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.
 
FACTOR V INHIBITOR SCREEN
Negative

F_7/9055: Coagulation Factor VII Activity Assay, Plasma

Adults: 65-180%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =20%) which increase within the first postnatal week but may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
 
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

F7IS/7809: Coagulation Factor VII Inhibitor Screen, Plasma

FACTOR VII ACTIVITY ASSAY
Adults: 65-180%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =20%) which increase within the first postnatal week but may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.
 
FACTOR VII INHIBITOR SCREEN
Negative

F8A/9070: Coagulation Factor VIII Activity Assay, Plasma

Adults: 55-200%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants usually have normal or elevated factor VIII.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

F_10/9066: Coagulation Factor X Activity Assay, Plasma

Adults: 70-150%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =15-20%) which may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

F10IS/7811: Coagulation Factor X Inhibitor Screen, Plasma

FACTOR X ACTIVITY ASSAY
Adults: 70-150%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =15-20%) which may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.
 
FACTOR X INHIBITOR SCREEN
Negative

F_11/9067: Coagulation Factor XI Activity Assay, Plasma

Adults: 55-150%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =10%) which may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

F11IS/7803: Coagulation Factor XI Inhibitor Screen, Plasma

FACTOR XI ACTIVITY ASSAY
Adults: 55-150%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =10%) which may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.
 
FACTOR XI INHIBITOR SCREEN
Negative

F_12/9069: Coagulation Factor XII Activity Assay, Plasma

Adults: 55-180%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =15% to 20%) which may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

COU/80083: Cobalt, 24 Hour, Urine

0.0-1.9 mcg/specimen
Reference values apply to all ages.

CORU/60354: Cobalt, Random, Urine

0.0-1.9 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

COS/80084: Cobalt, Serum

0.0-0.9 ng/mL
<10 ng/mL (MoM implant)
Reference values apply to all ages.

COBCU/60353: Cobalt/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

0.0-1.9 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values apply to all ages.

COKEM/84140: Cocaine and Metabolites Confirmation, Meconium

Negative
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
Cutoff concentrations
Cocaine by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g
Benzoylecgonine by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g
Cocaethylene by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g
m-Hydroxybenzoylecgonine by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g

Q10/87853: Coenzyme Q10, Reduced and Total, Plasma

CoQ10 REDUCED
<18 years: 320-1,376 mcg/L
> or =18 years: 415-1,480 mcg/L
 
TOTAL CoQ10
<18 years: 320-1,558 mcg/L
> or =18 years: 433-1,532 mcg/L
 
% REDUCED CoQ10
<18 years: 93-100%
> or =18 years: 92-98%
 
Miles MV, Horn PS, Tang PH, et al: Age-related changes in plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations and redox state in apparently healthy children and adults. Clin Chim Acta 2004;34:139-144

CVID/87993: Common Variable Immunodeficiency Confirmation Flow Panel

%CD19+TACI+: >3.4% 
%CD19+BAFF-R+: >90.2%
Reference values apply to all ages.

COM/8167: Complement, Total, Serum

> or =16 years: 30-75 U/mL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

CAHBS/84113: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Newborn Screening, Blood Spot

17-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE
Males: <7.1 ng/mL
Females: <4.1 ng/mL
 
ANDROSTENEDIONE
<3.1 ng/mL
 
CORTISOL
>2.5 ng/mL
 
11-DEOXYCORTISOL
<10.1 ng/mL
 
21-DEOXYCORTISOL
<1.7 ng/mL
 
(17 OHP + ANDROSTENEDIONE)/CORTISOL RATIO
<2.51
Note: Abnormal (17 OHP + Androstenedione)/Cortisol Ratio: >2.5 is only applicable when 17-OHP is elevated
 
11-DEOXYCORTISOL/CORTISOL RATIO
<1.1

CAH21/87815: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Profile for 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

CORTISOL
5-25 mcg/dL (a.m.)
2-14 mcg/dL (p.m.)
Pediatric reference ranges are the same as adults, as confirmed by peer-reviewed literature. 
Petersen KE: ACTH in normal children and children with pituitary and adrenal diseases. I. Measurement in plasma by radioimmunoassay-basal values. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981;70:341-345
 
ANDROSTENEDIONE 
PEDIATRICS*
Premature infants
26-28 weeks, day 4: 92-282 ng/dL
31-35 weeks, day 4: 80-446 ng/dL
Full-term infants
1-7 days: 20-290 ng/dL
1 month-1 year: <69 ng/dL
 
Males*
Tanner Stages
Age (Years)
Reference Range (ng/dL)
Stage I (prepubertal)
<9.8
<51
Stage II
9.8-14.5
31-65
Stage III
10.7-15.4
50-100
Stage IV
11.8-16.2
48-140
Stage V
12.8-17.3
65-210
 
Females*
Tanner Stages
Age (Years)
Reference Range (ng/dL)
Stage I (prepubertal)
<9.2
<51
Stage II
9.2-13.7
42-100
Stage III
10.0-14.4
80-190
Stage IV
10.7-15.6
77-225
Stage V
11.8-18.6
80-240
*Source: Androstenedione. In Pediatric Reference Ranges. Fourth Edition. Edited by SJ Soldin, C Brugnara, EC Wong. Washington, DC, AACC Press, 2003, pp 32-34
 
ADULTS          
Males: 40-150 ng/dL
Females: 30-200 ng/dL
 
17-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE
Children
Preterm infants: Preterm infants may exceed 630 ng/dL, however, it is uncommon to see levels reach 1,000 ng/dL.
Term infants
0-28 days: <630 ng/dL
Levels fall from newborn (<630 ng/dL) to prepubertal gradually within 6 months.
Prepubertal males: <110 ng/dL
Prepubertal females: <100 ng/dL
Adults
Males: <220 ng/dL
Females
Follicular: <80 ng/dL
Luteal: <285 ng/dL
Postmenopausal: <51 ng/dL
Note: For pregnancy reference ranges, see: Soldin OP, Guo T, Weiderpass E, et al: Steroid hormone levels in pregnancy and 1 year postpartum using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Fertil Steril 2005 Sept;84(3):701-710

CTDC/83631: Connective Tissue Diseases Cascade, Serum

ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
< or =1.0 U (negative)
1.1-2.9 U (weakly positive)
3.0-5.9 U (positive)
> or =6.0 U (strongly positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
CYCLIC CITRULLINATED PEPTIDE ANTIBODIES, IgG
<20.0 U (negative)
20.0-39.9 U (weak positive)
40.0-59.9 U (positive)
> or =60.0 U (strong positive) 
Reference values apply to all ages.

CUU/8590: Copper, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 15-60 mcg/specimen

CURU/60426: Copper, Random, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 15-60 mcg/L

CUS/8612: Copper, Serum

0-2 months: 0.40-1.40 mcg/mL   
3-6 months: 0.40-1.60 mcg/mL
7-9 months: 0.40-1.70 mcg/mL
10-12 months: 0.80-1.70 mcg/mL
13 months-10 years: 0.80-1.80 mcg/mL
> or =11 years: 0.75-1.45 mcg/mL

CUCRU/60427: Copper/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

> or =16 years: 15-60 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

CORTC/88221: Corticosterone, Serum

< or =18 years: 18-1,970 ng/dL
>18 years: 53-1,560 ng/dL

CORTU/8546: Cortisol, Free, 24 Hour, Urine

0-2 years: not established
3-8 years: 1.4-20 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 2.6-37 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 4.0-56 mcg/24 hours
> or =18 years: 3.5-45 mcg/24 hours
 
Use the factor below to convert from mcg/24 hours to nmol/24 hours:
 
Conversion factor
Cortisol: mcg/24 hours x 2.76=nmol/24 hours (molecular weight=362.5)

CRANU/82920: Cortisol, Free, Random, Urine

Males
0-2 years: 3.0-120 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 2.2-89 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 1.4-56 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 1.0-42 mcg/g creatinine
> or =18 years: 1.0-119 mcg/g creatinine
 
Females
0-2 years: 3.0-120 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 2.2-89 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 1.4-56 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 1.0-42 mcg/g creatinine
> or =18 years: 0.7-85 mcg/g creatinine
 
Use the conversion factors below to convert each analyte from mcg/g creatinine to nmol/mol creatinine.
 
Conversion factor
Cortisol: mcg/g creatinine x 413=nmol/mol creatinine
 
Cortisol molecular weight=362.5
Creatinine molecular weight=149.59

CINP/9369: Cortisol, Serum, LC-MS/MS

5-25 mcg/dL (a.m.)
2-14 mcg/dL (p.m.)
Pediatric reference ranges are the same as adults, as confirmed by peer-reviewed literature. 
 
Petersen KE: ACTH in normal children and children with pituitary and adrenal diseases. I. Measurement in plasma by radioimmunoassay-basal values. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981;70:341-345

COCOU/82948: Cortisol/Cortisone, Free, 24 Hour, Urine

CORTISOL
0-2 years: not established
3-8 years: 1.4-20 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 2.6-37 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 4.0-56 mcg/24 hours
> or =18 years: 3.5-45 mcg/24 hours
 
CORTISONE
0-2 years: not established
3-8 years: 5.5-41 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 9.9-73 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 15-108 mcg/24 hours
> or =18 years: 17-129 mcg/24 hours
 
Use the factors below to convert each analyte from mcg/24 hours to nmol/24 hours:
 
Conversion factors
Cortisol: mcg/24 hours x 2.76=nmol/24 hours (molecular weight=362.5)
Cortisone: mcg/24 hours x 2.78=nmol/24 hours (molecular weight=360)

COCRU/88903: Cortisol/Cortisone, Free, Random, Urine

CORTISOL
Males
0-2 years: 3.0-120 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 2.2-89 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 1.4-56 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 1.0-42 mcg/g creatinine
> or =18 years: 1.0-119 mcg/g creatinine
Females
0-2 years: 3.0-120 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 2.2-89 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 1.4-56 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 1.0-42 mcg/g creatinine
> or =18 years: 0.7-85 mcg/g creatinine
 
CORTISONE
0-2 years: 25-477 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 11-211 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 5.8-109 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 5.4-102 mcg/g creatinine
18-29 years: 5.7-153 mcg/g creatinine
30-39 years: 6.6-176 mcg/g creatinine
40-49 years: 7.6-203 mcg/g creatinine
50-59 years: 8.8-234 mcg/g creatinine
60-69 years: 10-270 mcg/g creatinine
> or =70 years: 12-311 mcg/g creatinine
 
Use the conversion factors below to convert each analyte from mcg/g creatinine to nmol/mol creatinine:
 
Conversion factors
Cortisol: mcg/g creatinine x 413=nmol/mol creatinine
Cortisone: mcg/g creatinine x 415=nmol/mol creatinine
 
Cortisol molecular weight=362.5
Cortisone molecular weight=360.4
Creatinine molecular weight=149.59

CRDPU/88697: Creatine Disorders Panel, Urine

Males
Age
Creatinine (nmol/mL)
Guanidinoacetate (nmol/mL)
Creatine (nmol/mL)
Creatine/
Creatinine

< or =31 days
430-5240
9-210
12-2930
0.02-0.93
32 days-23 months
313-9040
16-860
18-10490
0.02-2.49
2-4 years
1140-12820
90-1260
200-9210
0.04-1.75
5-18 years
1190-25270
40-1190
60-9530
0.01-0.96
>18 years (male)
3854-23340
30-710
7-470
0.00-0.04
 
Females
Age
Creatinine (nmol/mL)
Guanidinoacetate (nmol/mL)
Creatine (nmol/mL)
Creatine/
Creatinine

< or =31 days
430-5240
9-210
12-2930
0.02-0.93
32 days-23 months
313-9040
16-860
18-10490
0.02-2.49
2-4 years
1140-12820
90-1260
200-9210
0.04-1.75
5-18 years
1190-25270
40-1190
60-9530
0.01-0.96
>18 years
1540-18050
30-760
5-2810
0.00-0.46

CK/8336: Creatine Kinase (CK), Serum

Males
6-11 years: 150-499 U/L
12-17 years: 94-499 U/L
> or =18 years: 52-336 U/L
Females
6-7 years: 134-391 U/L
8-14 years: 91-391 U/L
15-17 years: 53-269 U/L
> or =18 years: 38-176 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 6 years of age.
Note: Strenuous exercise or intramuscular injections may cause transient elevation of CK.

CKELR/35063: Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme Reflex, Serum

CREATINE KINASE, TOTAL
Males
6-11 years: 150-499 U/L
12-17 years: 94-499 U/L
> or =18 years: 52-336 U/L
Females
6-7 years: 134-391 U/L
8-14 years: 91-391 U/L
15-17 years: 53-269 U/L
> or =18 years: 38-176 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 6 years of age.
Note: Strenuous exercise or intramuscular injections may cause transient elevation of CK.
 
CREATINE KINASE ISOENZYMES
MM: 100%
MB: 0%
BB: 0%

CRC/8500: Creatinine Clearance, Serum and 24-Hour Urine

Creatinine Clearance:
Males:
0-18 years: Reference values have not been established
19-75 years: 77-160 mL/min/BSA
> or =76 years: Reference values have not been established
Females:
0-17 years: Reference values have not been established
18-29 years: 78-161 mL/min/BSA
30-39 years: 72-154 mL/min/BSA
40-49 years: 67-146 mL/min/BSA
50-59 years: 62-139 mL/min/BSA
60-72 years: 56-131 mL/min/BSA
> or =73 years: Reference values have not been established
Creatinine, Urine: reported in units of mg/dL
 
Creatinine, Serum
Males
12-24 months: 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
3-4 years: 0.1-0.5 mg/dL
5-9 years: 0.2-0.6 mg/dL
10-11 years: 0.3-0.7 mg/dL
12-13 years: 0.4-0.8 mg/dL
14-15 years: 0.5-0.9 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 0.8-1.3 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.
Females
13-36 months: 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
4-5 years: 0.2-0.5 mg/dL
6-8 years: 0.3-0.6 mg/dL
9-15 years: 0.4-0.7 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 0.6-1.1 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.

CREAZ/8472: Creatinine with Estimated GFR (MDRD), Serum

CREATININE
Males
1-2 years: 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
3-4 years: 0.1-0.5 mg/dL
5-9 years: 0.2-0.6 mg/dL
10-11 years: 0.3-0.7 mg/dL
12-13 years: 0.4-0.8 mg/dL
14-15 years: 0.5-0.9 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 0.8-1.3 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
 
Females
1-3 years: 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
4-5 years: 0.2-0.5 mg/dL
6-8 years: 0.3-0.6 mg/dL
9-15 years: 0.4-0.7 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 0.6-1.1 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
 
ESTIMATED GFR
>60 mL/min/BSA
Note: eGFR results will not be calculated for patients <18 or >70 years old.

CCP/84182: Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<20.0 U (negative)
20.0-39.9 U (weak positive)
40.0-59.9 U (positive)
> or =60.0 U (strong positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

CYSQN/8376: Cystinuria Profile, Quantitative, 24 Hour, Urine

CYSTINE
3-15 years: 11-53 mcmol/24 hours
> or =16 years: 28-115 mcmol/24 hours
 
LYSINE
3-15 years: 19-140 mcmol/24 hours
> or =16 years: 32-290 mcmol/24 hours
 
ORNITHINE
3-15 years: 3-16 mcmol/24 hours
> or =16 years: 5-70 mcmol/24 hours
 
ARGININE
3-15 years: 10-25 mcmol/24 hours
> or =16 years: 13-64 mcmol/24 hours
 
Conversion Formulas:
Result in mcmol/24 hours x 0.24=result in mg/24 hours
Result in mg/24 hours x 4.17=result in mcmol/24 hours

CYSR/81067: Cystinuria Profile, Quantitative, Random, Urine

Urine Amino Acid Reference Values (nmol/mg creatinine)
Age Groups
 < or =12 Months
13-35 Months
3-6 Years
7-8 Years
9-17 Years
> or =18 Years
(n=36)
(n=45)
(n=39)
(n=10)
(n=40)
(n=145)
Arginine
Arg
10-560
20-395
14-240
<134
<153
<114
Ornithine
Orn
<265
<70
<44
<17
<18
<25
Cystine
Cys
12-504
11-133
<130
<56
<104
10-98
Lysine
Lys
19-1988
25-743
14-307
17-276
10-240
15-271
 

DHEA_/81405: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Serum

Premature: <40 ng/mL*
0-1 day: <11 ng/mL*
2-6 days: <8.7 ng/mL*
7 days-1 month: <5.8 ng/mL*
>1-23 months: <2.9 ng/mL*
2-5 years: <2.3 ng/mL
6-10 years: <3.4 ng/mL
11-14 years: <5.0 ng/mL
15-18 years: <6.6 ng/mL
19-30 years: <13 ng/mL
31-40 years: <10 ng/mL
41-50 years: <8.0 ng/mL
51-60 years: <6.0 ng/mL
> or =61 years: <5.0 ng/mL
 
*Source: Dehydroepiandrosterone. In Pediatric Reference Ranges. 5th edition. Edited by SJ Soldin, C Brugnara, EC Wong. Washington, DC, AACC Press, 2005, p 75

DHES/8493: Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S), Serum

MALES
1-14 days: DHEA-S levels in newborns are very elevated at birth but will fall to prepubertal levels within a few days.
Tanner Stages* 
Mean
Age
Reference Range (mcg/dL)
Stage I
>14 days
<15-120
Stage II
11.5 years
<15-333
Stage III
13.6 years
<15-312
Stage IV
15.1 years
29-412
Stage V
18.0 years
89-457
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-) 2 years. For boys, there is no proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) is usually reached by age 18.
18-29 years: 89-457 mcg/dL
30-39 years: 65-334 mcg/dL
40-49 years: 48-244 mcg/dL
50-59 years: 35-179 mcg/dL
> or =60 years: 25-131 mcg/dL
 
FEMALES
1-14 days: DHEA-S levels in newborns are very elevated at birth but fall to prepubertal levels within a few days.
Tanner Stages* 
Mean
Age
Reference Range (mcg/dL)
Stage I
>14 days
16-96
Stage II
10.5 years
22-184
Stage III
11.6 years
<15-296
Stage IV
12.3 years
17-343
Stage V
14.5 years
44-332
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-) 2 years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) is usually reached by age 18.
18-29 years: 44-332 mcg/dL
30-39 years: 31-228 mcg/dL
40-49 years: 18-244 mcg/dL
50-59 years: <15-200 mcg/dL
> or =60 years: <15-157 mcg/dL

DME/60480: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Evaluation

GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE (GAD65) ANTIBODY
< or =0.02 nmol/L
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
INSULIN ANTIBODIES
< or =0.02 nmol/L
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
ISLET ANTIGEN 2 (IA-2) ANTIBODY
< or =0.02 nmol/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

FRDIG/82130: Digoxin, Free, Serum

Therapeutic concentration: 0.4-1.5 ng/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =3.0 ng/mL
Pediatric toxic concentrations may be higher.

DIG/8674: Digoxin, Serum

Therapeutic concentration: 0.5-2.0 ng/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =4.0 ng/mL
Pediatric toxic concentrations may be higher.
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

DHTS/81479: Dihydrotestosterone, Serum

Males
Cord blood: < or =100 pg/mL
< or =6 months: < or =1,200 pg/mL
Tanner Stages  
Mean
Age
Reference Range (pg/mL)
Stage I (>6 months and prepubertal)
7.1 years
< or =50
Stage II
12.1 years
< or =200
Stage III
13.6 years
80-330
Stage IV
15.1 years
220-520
Stage V
18 years
240-650
>19 years: 112-955 pg/mL
 
Females
Cord blood: < or =50 pg/mL
< or =6 months: < or =1,200 pg/mL
Tanner Stages  
Mean
Age
Reference Range (pg/mL)
Stage I (>6 months and prepubertal)
7.1 years
< or =50
Stage II
10.5 years
< or =300
Stage III
11.6 years
< or =300
Stage IV
12.3 years
< or =300
Stage V
14.5 years
< or =300
20-55 years: < or =300 pg/mL
>55 years: < or =128 pg/mL
 
1. Pang S, Levine LS, Chow D, et al: Dihydrotestosterone and its relationship to testosterone in infancy and childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979;48:821-826
2. Stanczyk FZ: Diagnosis of hyperandrogenism: biochemical criteria. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;20(2):177-191

ADNA/8178: DNA Double-Stranded (dsDNA) Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<30.0 IU/mL (negative)
30.0-75.0 IU/mL (borderline)
>75.0 IU/mL (positive)
Negative is considered normal.
Reference values apply to all ages.

DASM4/60553: Drugs of Abuse Screen, Meconium 4

Negative
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
Cutoff concentrations
Amphetamines by ELISA: >100 ng/g
Methamphetamine by ELISA: >100 ng/g
Benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) by ELISA: >100 ng/g
Opiates by ELISA: >100 ng/g
Tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (marijuana metabolite) by ELISA: >20 ng/g

DASM5/60250: Drugs of Abuse Screen, Meconium 5

Negative
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
Cutoff concentrations
Amphetamines by ELISA: >100 ng/g
Methamphetamine by ELISA: >100 ng/g
Benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) by ELISA: >100 ng/g
Opiates by ELISA: >100 ng/g
Tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (marijuana metabolite) by ELISA: >20 ng/g
Phencyclidine by ELISA: >20 ng/g

EEPC/83917: Eastern Equine Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid

IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10
Reference values apply to all ages.

PEL/80085: Electrophoresis, Protein, Serum

PROTEIN, TOTAL
> or =1 year: 6.3-7.9 g/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
 
PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS
Albumin: 3.4-4.7 g/dL
Alpha-1-globulin: 0.1-0.3 g/dL
Alpha-2-globulin: 0.6-1.0 g/dL
Beta-globulin: 0.7-1.2 g/dL
Gamma-globulin: 0.6-1.6 g/dL
An interpretive comment is provided with the report.

EEST/81816: Estradiol, Serum

CHILDREN*
1-14 days: Estradiol levels in newborns are very elevated at birth but will fall to prepubertal levels within a few days.
Males
Tanner Stages#
Mean Age
Reference Range
Stage I (>14 days and prepubertal)
7.1 years
Undetectable-13 pg/mL
Stage II
12.1 years
Undetectable-16 pg/mL
Stage III
13.6 years
Undetectable-26 pg/mL
Stage IV
15.1 years
Undetectable-38 pg/mL
Stage V
18 years
10-40 pg/mL
#Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/- 2) years. For boys, there is no proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
Females
Tanner Stages#
Mean Age
Reference Range
Stage I (>14 days and prepubertal)
7.1 years
Undetectable-20 pg/mL
Stage II
10.5 years
Undetectable-24 pg/mL
Stage III
11.6 years
Undetectable-60 pg/mL
Stage IV
12.3 years
15-85 pg/mL
Stage V
14.5 years
15-350 pg/mL**
#Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/- 2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
*The reference ranges for children are based on the published literature(1,2), cross-correlation of our assay with assays used to generate the literature data, and on our data for young adults.
 
ADULTS
Males: 10-40 pg/mL
Females           
Premenopausal: 15-350 pg/mL**
Postmenopausal: <10 pg/mL
**E2 levels vary widely through the menstrual cycle.
Conversion factor
E2: pg/mL x 3.676=pmol/L (molecular weight=272)

ESTF/84230: Estrogens, Estrone (E1) and Estradiol (E2), Fractionated, Serum

ESTRONE (E1)
CHILDREN*
1-14 days: Estrone levels in newborns are very elevated at birth but will fall to prepubertal levels within a few days.
Males
Tanner Stages#
Mean Age
Reference Range
Stage I (>14 days and prepubertal)
7.1 years
Undetectable-16 pg/mL
Stage II
11.5 years
Undetectable-22 pg/mL
Stage III
13.6 years
10-25 pg/mL
Stage IV
15.1 years
10-46 pg/mL
Stage V
18 years
10-60 pg/mL
#Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/- 2) years. For boys there is no proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
Females
Tanner Stages#
Mean Age
Reference Range
Stage I (>14 days and prepubertal)
7.1 years
Undetectable-29 pg/mL
Stage II
10.5 years
10-33 pg/mL
Stage III
11.6 years
15-43 pg/mL
Stage IV
12.3 years
16-77 pg/mL
Stage V
14.5 years
17-200 pg/mL
#Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/- 2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
*The reference ranges for children are based on the published literature(1,2), cross-correlation of our assay with assays used to generate the literature data and on our data for young adults.
ADULTS
Males: 10-60 pg/mL
Females
Premenopausal: 17-200 pg/mL
Postmenopausal: 7-40 pg/mL
Conversion factor
E1: pg/mL x 3.704=pmol/L (molecular weight=270)
 
ESTRADIOL (E2)
CHILDREN*
1-14 days: Estradiol levels in newborns are very elevated at birth but will fall to prepubertal levels within a few days.
Males
Tanner Stages#
Mean Age
Reference Range
Stage I (>14 days and prepubertal)
7.1 years
Undetectable-13 pg/mL
Stage II
12.1 years
Undetectable-16 pg/mL
Stage III
13.6 years
Undetectable-26 pg/mL
Stage IV
15.1 years
Undetectable-38 pg/mL
Stage V
18 years
10-40 pg/mL
#Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/- 2) years. For boys there is no proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
Females
Tanner Stages#
Mean Age
Reference Range
Stage I (>14 days and prepubertal)
7.1 years
Undetectable-20 pg/mL
Stage II
10.5 years
Undetectable-24 pg/mL
Stage III
11.6 years
Undetectable-60 pg/mL
Stage IV
12.3 years
15-85 pg/mL
Stage V
14.5 years
15-350 pg/mL**
#Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/- 2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
*The reference ranges for children are based on the published literature(1,2), cross-correlation of our assay with assays used to generate the literature data and on our data for young adults.
ADULTS
Males: 10-40 pg/mL
Females
Premenopausal: 15-350 pg/mL**
Postmenopausal: <10 pg/mL
**E2 levels vary widely through the menstrual cycle.
Conversion factor
E2: pg/mL x 3.676=pmol/L (molecular weight=272)

E1/81418: Estrone, Serum

CHILDREN*
1-14 days: Estrone levels in newborns are very elevated at birth but will fall to prepubertal levels within a few days.
Males
Tanner Stages#
Mean Age
Reference Range
Stage I (>14 days and prepubertal)
7.1 years
Undetectable-16 pg/mL
Stage II
11.5 years
Undetectable-22 pg/mL
Stage III
13.6 years
10-25 pg/mL
Stage IV
15.1 years
10-46 pg/mL
Stage V
18 years
10-60 pg/mL
#Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/- 2) years. For boys there is no proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
Females
Tanner Stages#
Mean Age
Reference Range
Stage I (>14 days and prepubertal)
7.1 years
Undetectable-29 pg/mL
Stage II
10.5 years
10-33 pg/mL
Stage III
11.6 years
15-43 pg/mL
Stage IV
12.3 years
16-77 pg/mL
Stage V
14.5 years
17-200 pg/mL
#Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/- 2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
*The reference ranges for children are based on the published literature(1,2), cross-correlation of our assay with assays used to generate the literature data and on our data for young adults.
 
ADULTS
Males: 10-60 pg/mL
Females
Premenopausal: 17-200 pg/mL
Postmenopausal: 7-40 pg/mL
Conversion factor
E1: pg/mL x 3.704=pmol/L (molecular weight=270)

F9INH/83103: Factor IX Inhibitor Evaluation

FACTOR IX ACTIVITY ASSAY
Adults: 65-140%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels (> or =20%), which may not reach adult levels for > or =180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.
 
FACTOR IX INHIBITOR SCREEN
Negative
 
BETHESDA TITER
0 Units

F8INH/83102: Factor VIII Inhibitor Evaluation

FACTOR VIII ACTIVITY ASSAY
Adults: 55-200%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants usually have normal or elevated factor VIII.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.
 
FACTOR VIII INHIBITOR SCREEN
Negative
 
BETHESDA TITER
0 Units

FATF/8310: Fat, Feces

TIMED COLLECTION
> or =18 years: 2-7 g fat/24 hours
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <18 years of age.
 
RANDOM COLLECTION
All ages: 0-19% fat

FAPCP/82042: Fatty Acid Profile, Comprehensive (C8-C26), Serum

Octanoic Acid, C8:0
<1 year: 7-63 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 9-41 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 8-47 nmol/mL
 
Decenoic Acid, C10:1
<1 year: 0.8-4.8 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1.6-6.6 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 1.8-5.0 nmol/mL
 
Decanoic Acid, C10:0
<1 year: 2-62 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 3-25 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 2-18 nmol/mL
 
Lauroleic Acid, C12:1
<1 year: 0.6-4.8 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1.3-5.8 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 1.4-6.6 nmol/mL
 
Lauric Acid, C12:0
<1 year: 6-190 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 5-80 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 6-90 nmol/mL
 
Tetradecadienoic Acid, C14:2
<1 year: 0.3-6.5 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 0.2-5.8 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 0.8-5.0 nmol/mL
 
Myristoleic Acid, C14:1
<1 year: 1-46 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1-31 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 3-64 nmol/mL
 
Myristic Acid, C14:0
<1 year: 30-320 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 40-290 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 30-450 nmol/mL
 
Hexadecadienoic Acid, C16:2
<1 year: 4-27 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 3-29 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 10-48 nmol/mL
 
Hexadecenoic Acid, C16:1w9
<1 year: 21-69 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 24-82 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 25-105 nmol/mL
 
Palmitoleic Acid, C16:1w7
<1 year: 20-1,020 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 100-670 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 110-1,130 nmol/mL
 
Palmitic Acid, C16:0
<1 year: 720-3,120 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 960-3,460 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 1,480-3,730 nmol/mL
 
Gamma-Linolenic Acid, C18:3w6
<1 year: 6-110 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 9-130 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 16-150 nmol/mL
 
Alpha-Linolenic Acid, C18:3w3
<1 year: 10-190 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 20-120 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 50-130 nmol/mL
 
Linoleic Acid, C18:2w6
1-31 days: 350-2,660 nmol/mL
32 days-11 months: 1,000-3,300 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1,600-3,500 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 2,270-3,850 nmol/mL
 
Oleic Acid, C18:1w9
<1 year: 250-3,500 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 350-3,500 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 650-3,500 nmol/mL
 
Vaccenic Acid, C18:1w7
<1 year: 140-720 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 320-900 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 280-740 nmol/mL
 
Stearic Acid, C18:0
<1 year: 270-1,140 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 280-1,170 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 590-1,170 nmol/mL
 
EPA, C20:5w3
<1 year: 2-60 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 8-90 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 14-100 nmol/mL
 
Arachidonic Acid, C20:4w6
<1 year: 110-1,110 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 350-1,030 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 520-1,490 nmol/mL
 
Mead Acid, C20:3w9
1-31 days: 8-60 nmol/mL
32 days-11 months: 3-24 nmol/mL
> or =1 year: 7-30 nmol/mL
  
Homo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid, C20:3w6
<1 year: 30-170 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 60-220 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 50-250 nmol/mL
 
Arachidic Acid, C20:0
<1 year: 30-120 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 30-90 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 50-90 nmol/mL
 
DHA, C22:6w3
<1 year: 10-220 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 30-160 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 30-250 nmol/mL
 
DPA, C22:5w6
<1 year: 3-70 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 10-50 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 10-70 nmol/mL
 
DPA, C22:5w3
<1 year: 6-110 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 30-270 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 20-210 nmol/mL
 
DTA, C22:4w6
<1 year: 2-50 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 10-40 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 10-80 nmol/mL
 
Docosenoic Acid, C22:1
<1 year: 2-20 nmol/mL
> or =1 year: 4-13 nmol/mL 
 
Docosanoic Acid, C22:0
0.0-96.3 nmol/mL
 
Nervonic Acid, C24:1
<1 year: 30-150 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 50-130 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 60-100 nmol/mL
 
Tetracosanoic Acid, C24:0
0.0-91.4 nmol/mL
 
Hexacosenoic Acid, C26:1
<1 year: 0.2-2.1 nmol/mL
> or =1 year: 0.3-0.7 nmol/mL 
 
Hexacosanoic Acid, C26:0
0.00-1.30 nmol/mL
 
Pristanic Acid, C15:0(CH3)4
1 day-4 months: 0.00-0.60 nmol/mL
5-8 months: 0.00-0.84 nmol/mL
9-12 months: 0.00-0.77 nmol/mL
13-23 months: 0.00-1.47 nmol/mL
> or =2 years: 0.00-2.98 nmol/mL
 
Phytanic Acid, C16:0(CH3)4
1 day-4 months: 0.00-5.28 nmol/mL
5-8 months: 0.00-5.70 nmol/mL
9-12 months: 0.00-4.40 nmol/mL
13-23 months: 0.00-8.62 nmol/mL
> or =2 years: 0.00-9.88 nmol/mL
 
Triene/Tetraene Ratio
1-31 days: 0.017-0.083
32 days-17 years: 0.013-0.050  
> or =18 years: 0.010-0.038
 
Total Saturated Acid
<1 year: 1.2-4.6 mmol/L
1-17 years: 1.4-4.9 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 2.5-5.5 mmol/L
 
Total Monounsaturated Acid
<1 year: 0.3-4.6 mmol/L
1-17 years: 0.5-4.4 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 1.3-5.8 mmol/L
 
Total Polyunsaturated Acid
<1 year: 1.1-4.9 mmol/L
1-17 years: 1.7-5.3 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 3.2-5.8 mmol/L
 
Total w3
<1 year: 0.0-0.4 mmol/L
1-17 years: 0.1-0.5 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 0.2-0.5 mmol/L
 
Total w6
<1 year: 0.9-4.4 mmol/L
1-17 years: 1.6-4.7 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 3.0-5.4 mmol/L
 
Total Fatty Acids
<1 year: 3.3-14.0 mmol/L
1-17 years: 4.4-14.3 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 7.3-16.8 mmol/L
 

FAPEP/82426: Fatty Acid Profile, Essential, Serum

Lauric Acid, C12:0
<1 year: 6-190 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 5-80 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 6-90 nmol/mL
 
Myristic Acid, C14:0
<1 year: 30-320 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 40-290 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 30-450 nmol/mL
 
Hexadecenoic Acid, C16:1w9
<1 year: 21-69 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 24-82 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 25-105 nmol/mL
 
Palmitoleic Acid, C16:1w7
<1 year: 20-1,020 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 100-670 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 110-1,130 nmol/mL
 
Palmitic Acid, C16:0
<1 year: 720-3,120 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 960-3,460 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 1,480-3,730 nmol/mL
 
Gamma-Linolenic Acid, C18:3w6
<1 year: 6-110 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 9-130 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 16-150 nmol/mL
 
Alpha-Linolenic Acid, C18:3w3
<1 year: 10-190 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 20-120 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 50-130 nmol/mL
 
Linoleic Acid, C18:2w6
1-31 days: 350-2,660 nmol/mL
32 days-11 months: 1,000-3,300 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1,600-3,500 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 2,270-3,850 nmol/mL
 
Oleic Acid, C18:1w9
<1 year: 250-3,500 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 350-3,500 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 650-3,500 nmol/mL
 
Vaccenic Acid, C18:1w7
<1 year: 140-720 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 320-900 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 280-740 nmol/mL
 
Stearic Acid, C18:0
<1 year: 270-1,140 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 280-1,170 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 590-1,170 nmol/mL
 
EPA, C20:5w3
<1 year: 2-60 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 8-90 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 14-100 nmol/mL
 
Arachidonic Acid, C20:4w6
<1 year: 110-1,110 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 350-1,030 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 520-1,490 nmol/mL
 
Mead Acid, C20:3w9
1-31 days: 8-60 nmol/mL
32 days-11 months: 3-24 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 7-30 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 7-30 nmol/mL
 
Homo-Gamma-Linolenic C20:3w6
<1 year: 30-170 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 60-220 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 50-250 nmol/mL
 
Arachidic Acid, C20:0
<1 year: 30-120 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 30-90 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 50-90 nmol/mL
 
DHA, C22:6w3    
<1 year: 10-220 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 30-160 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 30-250 nmol/mL
 
DPA, C22:5w6  
<1 year: 3-70 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 10-50 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 10-70 nmol/mL
 
DPA, C22:5w3  
<1 year: 6-110 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 30-270 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 20-210 nmol/mL
 
DTA, C22:4w6
<1 year: 2-50 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 10-40 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 10-80 nmol/mL
 
Docosenoic Acid, C22:1
<1 year: 2-20 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 4-13 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 4-13 nmol/mL
 
Nervonic Acid, C24:1w9
<1 year: 30-150 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 50-130 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 60-100 nmol/mL
 
Triene/Tetraene Ratio
1-31 days: 0.017-0.083
32 days-17 years: 0.013-0.050
> or =18 years: 0.010-0.038
 
Total Saturated Acid
<1 year: 1.2-4.6 mmol/L
1-17 years: 1.4-4.9 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 2.5-5.5 mmol/L
 
Total Monounsaturated Acid
<1 year: 0.3-4.6 mmol/L
1-17 years: 0.5-4.4 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 1.3-5.8 mmol/L
 
Total Polyunsaturated Acid
<1 year: 1.1-4.9 mmol/L
1-17 years: 1.7-5.3 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 3.2-5.8 mmol/L
 
Total w3    
<1 year: 0.0-0.4 mmol/L
1-17 years: 0.1-0.5 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 0.2-0.5 mmol/L
 
Total w6
<1 year: 0.9-4.4 mmol/L
1-17 years: 1.6-4.7 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 3.0-5.4 mmol/L
 
Total Fatty Acids
<1 year: 3.3-14.0 mmol/L
1-17 years: 4.4-14.3 mmol/L
> or =18 years: 7.3-16.8 mmol/L

FAPM/81939: Fatty Acid Profile, Mitochondrial (C8-C18), Serum

Octanoic Acid, C8:0
<1 year: 7-63 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 9-41 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 8-47 nmol/mL
 
Decenoic Acid, C10:1
<1 year: 0.8-4.8 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1.6-6.6 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 1.8-5.0 nmol/mL
 
Decanoic Acid, C10:0
<1 year: 2-62 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 3-25 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 2-18 nmol/mL
 
Lauroleic Acid, C12:1
<1 year: 0.6-4.8 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1.3-5.8 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 1.4-6.6 nmol/mL
 
Lauric Acid, C12:0
<1 year: 6-190 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 5-80 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 6-90 nmol/mL
 
Tetradecadienoic Acid, C14:2
<1 year: 0.3-6.5 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 0.2-5.8 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 0.8-5.0 nmol/mL
 
Myristoleic Acid, C14:1
<1 year: 1-46 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1-31 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 3-64 nmol/mL
 
Myristic Acid, C14:0
<1 year: 30-320 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 40-290 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 30-450 nmol/mL
 
Hexadecadienoic Acid, C16:2
<1 year: 4-27 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 3-29 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 10-48 nmol/mL
 
Palmitoleic Acid, C16:1w7
<1 year: 20-1,020 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 100-670 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 110-1,130 nmol/mL
 
Palmitic Acid, C16:0
<1 year: 720-3,120 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 960-3,460 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 1,480-3,730 nmol/mL
 
Linoleic Acid, C18:2w6
1-31 days: 350-2,660 nmol/mL
32 days-11 months: 1,000-3,300 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 1,600-3,500 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 2,270-3,850 nmol/mL
 
Oleic Acid, C18:1w9
<1 year: 250-3,500 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 350-3,500 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 650-3,500 nmol/mL
 
Stearic Acid, C18:0
<1 year: 270-1,140 nmol/mL
1-17 years: 280-1,170 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 590-1,170 nmol/mL

POX/81369: Fatty Acid Profile, Peroxisomal (C22-C26), Serum

C22:0
< or =96.3 nmol/mL
 
C24:0
< or =91.4 nmol/mL
 
C26:0
< or =1.30 nmol/mL
 
C24:0/C22:0 RATIO
< or =1.39
 
C26:0/C22:0 RATIO
< or =0.023
 
PRISTANIC ACID
0-4 months: < or =0.60 nmol/mL
5-8 months: < or =0.84 nmol/mL
9-12 months: < or =0.77 nmol/mL
13-23 months: < or =1.47 nmol/mL
> or =24 months: < or =2.98 nmol/mL
 
PHYTANIC ACID
0-4 months: < or =5.28 nmol/mL
5-8 months: < or =5.70 nmol/mL
9-12 months: < or =4.40 nmol/mL
13-23 months: < or =8.62 nmol/mL
> or =24 months: < or =9.88 nmol/mL
 
PRISTANIC/PHYTANIC ACID RATIO
0-4 months: < or =0.35
5-8 months: < or =0.28
9-12 months: < or =0.23
13-23 months: < or =0.24
> or =24 months: < or =0.39

FLP/8929: Fetal Lung Profile, Amniotic Fluid

Lecithin/
Sphingomyelin
Ratio
 
 
Phosphatidylglycerol
 
 
Interpretation
<2.5
Absent
Immature
> or =2.5
Absent
Indeterminate
<2.5
Trace
Indeterminate
> or =2.5
Trace
Mature
Any ratio
Present
Mature
All results will be called back.

FIB/8484: Fibrinogen, Plasma

Males: 200-375 mg/dL
Females: 200-430 mg/dL
In normal, full-term newborns and in healthy, premature infants (30-36 week gestation), fibrinogen is near adult levels and reaches adult levels by < or =21 days postnatal.

FGF23/88662: Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23), Plasma

Results may be significantly elevated (ie, >900 RU/mL) in normal infants <3 months of age.
3 months-17 years: < or =230 RU/mL
> or =18 years: < or =180 RU/mL

1STT/87857: First Trimester Maternal Screen

DOWN SYNDROME
Calculated screen risks <1/230 are reported as screen negative.
Risks > or =1/230 are reported as screen positive.
 
TRISOMY 18
Calculated screen risks <1/100 are reported as screen negative.
Risks > or =1/100 are reported as screen positive. A numeric risk for trisomy 18 risk is provided with positive results on non-diabetic, non-twin pregnancies.
 
An interpretive report will be provided.

FSH/8670: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Serum

Males
1-7 days: < or =3.0 IU/L
8-14 days: < or =1.4 IU/L
15 days-3 years: < or =2.5 IU/L
4-6 years: < or =6.7 IU/L
7-8 years: < or =4.1 IU/L
9-10 years: < or =4.5 IU/L
11 years: 0.4-8.9 IU/L
12 years: 0.5-10.5 IU/L
13 years: 0.7-10.8 IU/L
14 years: 0.5-10.5 IU/L
15 years: 0.4-18.5 IU/L
16 years: < or =9.7 IU/L
17 years: 2.2-12.3 IU/L
> or =18 years: 1.0-18.0 IU/L
 
TANNER STAGES*
Stage l: < or =3.7 IU/L
Stage ll: < or =12.2 IU/L
Stage lll: < or =17.4 IU/L
Stage lV: 0.3-8.2 IU/L
Stage V: 1.1-12.9 IU/L
*Puberty onset occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/- 2) years. For boys there is no proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
Females
1-7 days: < or =3.4 IU/L
8-14 days: < or =1.0 IU/L
15 days-6 years: < or =3.3 IU/L
7-8 years: < or =11.1 IU/L
9-10 years: 0.4-6.9 IU/L
11 years: 0.4-9.0 IU/L
12 years: 1.0-17.2 IU/L
13 years: 1.8-9.9 IU/L
14-16 years: 0.9-12.4 IU/L
17 years: 1.2-9.6 IU/L
> or =18 years:
Premenopausal
Follicular: 3.9-8.8 IU/L
Midcycle: 4.5-22.5 IU/L
Luteal: 1.8-5.1 IU/L
Postmenopausal: 16.7-113.6 IU/L
 
TANNER STAGES*
Stage l: 0.4-6.7 IU/L
Stage ll: 0.5-8.7 IU/L
Stage lll: 1.2-11.4 IU/L
Stage lV: 0.7-12.8 IU/L
Stage V: 1.0-11.6 IU/L
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/- 2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
Pediatric ranges derived for DXI method from analytic comparison to reference method in: Elmlinger MW, Kuhnel W, Ranke MB: Reference ranges for serum concentrations of lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), estradiol (E2), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol and ferritin in neonates, children and young adults. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002;40(11):1151-1160

NEFA/8280: Free Fatty Acids, Total, Serum

> or =16 years: 0.00-0.72 mmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

FRTIX/80315: Free Thyroxine Index (FTI), Serum

T-UPTAKE
Males: 27-37%
Females: 20-37%
 
FREE THYROXINE INDEX
Males
<1.5 suggest hypothyroidism
1.5-3.0 suggest euthyroidism
>3.0 suggest hyperthyroidism
Females
<1.3 suggest hypothyroidism
1.3-3.0 suggest euthyroidism
>3.0 suggest hyperthyroidism
 
THYROXINE, TOTAL
Males
0-11 months: not established
1-9 years: 6.0-12.5 mcg/dL
10-23 years: 5.0-11.0 mcg/dL
> or =24 years: 5.0-12.5 mcg/dL
Females
0-11 months: not established
1-9 years: 6.0-12.5 mcg/dL
10-17 years: 5.0-11.0 mcg/dL
> or =18 years: 5.0-12.5 mcg/dL

FFRBS/60476: Friedreich Ataxia, Frataxin, Quantitative, Blood Spot

Pediatric (<18 years) normal frataxin: > or =15 ng/mL
Adults (> or =18 years) normal frataxin: > or =21 ng/mL

FFRWB/60477: Friedreich Ataxia, Frataxin, Quantitative, Whole Blood

Pediatric (<18 years) normal frataxin: > or =19 ng/mL
Adults (> or =18 years) normal frataxin: > or =21 ng/mL

GDU/89301: Gadolinium, 24 Hour, Urine

0.0-0.4 mcg/specimen
Reference values apply to all ages.

GDUR/89316: Gadolinium, Random, Urine

0.0-0.4 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

GDCRU/60428: Gadolinium/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

0.0-0.4 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values apply to all ages.

GATOL/62440: Galactitol, Quantitative, Urine

0-11 months: <109 mmol/mol creatinine
1-3 years: <52 mmol/mol creatinine
4–17 years: <16 mmol/mol creatinine
> or =18 years: <13 mmol/mol creatinine

GALK/8628: Galactokinase, Blood

<2 years: 20.1-79.8 mU/g of hemoglobin
> or =2 years: 12.1-39.7 mU/g of hemoglobin

GALP/83638: Galactose, Quantitative, Plasma

1-7 days: <5.4 mg/dL
8-14 days: <3.6 mg/dL
>14 days: <2.0 mg/dL

GGT/8677: Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Serum

Males
1-6 years: 7-19 U/L
7-9 years: 9-22 U/L
10-13 years: 9-24 U/L
14-15 years: 9-26 U/L
16-17 years: 9-27 U/L
18-35 years: 9-31 U/L
36-40 years: 8-35 U/L
41-45 years: 9-37 U/L
46-50 years: 10-39 U/L
51-54 years: 10-42 U/L
55 years: 11-45 U/L
> or =56 years: 12-48 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients <12 months of age.
 
Females
>1 year: 6-29 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients <12 months of age.

GM1B/83189: Ganglioside Antibody Panel, Serum

99% of Normals Fall at or Below This Titer
IgG monosialo GM1
1:500
IgM monosialo GM1
1:1,000
IgG asialo GM1
1:4,000
IgM asialo GM1
1:4,000
IgG disialo GD1b
1:1,000
IgM disialo GD1b
1:1,000
 
Borderline Ranges
IgG monosialo GM1
=1:1,000
IgM monosialo GM1
=1:2,000
IgG asialo GM1
=1:8,000
IgM asialo GM1
No borderline range (normal: < or =4,000)
IgG disialo GD1b
No borderline range (normal: < or =1,000)
IgM disialo GD1b
No borderline range (normal: < or =1,000)
 
Abnormal Results
IgG monosialo GM1
>1:1,000
IgM monosialo GM1
>1:2,000
IgG asialo GM1
>1:8,000
IgM asialo GM1
>1:4,000
IgG disialo GD1b
>1:1,000
IgM disialo GD1b
>1:1,000

GAST/8512: Gastrin, Serum

<100 pg/mL
There is no evidence that fasting serum gastrin levels differ between adults and children. Although 8-hour fasts are difficult or impossible to enforce in small children, serum gastrin levels after shorter fasting periods (3-8 hours) may be 50% to 60% higher than the 8-hour fasting value.

DGLDN/89031: Gliadin (Deamidated) Antibodies Evaluation, IgG and IgA, Serum

Negative: <20.0 U
Weak positive: 20.0-30.0 U
Positive: >30.0 U
Reference values apply to all ages.

DAGL/89029: Gliadin (Deamidated) Antibody, IgA, Serum

Negative: <20.0 U
Weak positive: 20.0-30.0 U
Positive: >30.0 U
Reference values apply to all ages.

DGGL/89030: Gliadin (Deamidated) Antibody, IgG, Serum

Negative: <20.0 U
Weak positive: 20.0-30.0 U
Positive: >30.0 U
Reference values apply to all ages.

GBM/8106: Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)                     
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

GLP/9358: Glucagon, Plasma

< or =6 hours: 100-650 pg/mL
1-2 days: 70-450 pg/mL
2-4 days: 100-650 pg/mL
4-14 days: declining gradually to adult levels
>14 days: < or =80 pg/mL (range based on 95% confidence limits)
Glucagon levels are inversely related to blood glucose levels at all ages. This is particularly pronounced at birth and shortly thereafter, until regular feeding patterns are established. This explains the higher levels immediately after birth, which then first fall as the glucagon release mobilizes the infant's glucose stores, then rise again as stores are depleted, finally normalizing towards adult levels as regular feeding patterns are established.

GLURA/89115: Glucose, Random, Serum

0-11 months: not established
> or =1 year: 70-140 mg/dL

GD65S/81596: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD65) Antibody Assay, Serum

< or =0.02 nmol/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

HGH/8688: Growth Hormone, Serum

Adults
Males: 0.01-0.97 ng/mL
Females: 0.01-3.61 ng/mL
Reference intervals have not been formally verified in-house for pediatric and adolescent patients. The published literature indicates that reference intervals for adult, pediatric, and adolescent patients are comparable.

HMSBR/34506: Heavy Metals Screen with Demographics, Blood

ARSENIC
0-12 ng/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
LEAD
0-6 years: 0-4 mcg/dL
> or =7 years: 0-9 mcg/dL
Critical values
Pediatrics (< or =15 years): > or =20 mcg/dL
Adults (> or =16 years): > or =70 mcg/dL
 
CADMIUM
0.0-4.9 ng/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
MERCURY
0-9 ng/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

HMSU/8633: Heavy Metals Screen, 24 Hour, Urine

ARSENIC
0-35 mcg/specimen
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
LEAD
0-4 mcg/specimen
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
CADMIUM
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-1.3 mcg/specimen
 
MERCURY
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0-9 mcg/specimen
Toxic concentration: >50 mcg/specimen
The concentration at which toxicity is expressed is widely variable between patients. 50 mcg/specimen is the lowest concentration at which toxicity is usually apparent.

HMSRU/60236: Heavy Metals Screen, Random, Urine

ARSENIC
0-35 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
LEAD
0-4 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
CADMIUM
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-1.3 mcg/L
 
MERCURY
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0-9 mcg/L
Toxic concentration: >50 mcg/L
The concentration at which toxicity is expressed is widely variable between patients. 50 mcg/L is the lowest concentration at which toxicity is usually apparent.

HMHA/45479: Heavy Metals, Hair

ARSENIC
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-0.9 mcg/g of hair
 
LEAD
0.0-3.9 mcg/g of hair
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
MERCURY
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-0.9 mcg/g of hair

HMNA/31070: Heavy Metals, Nails

ARSENIC
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-0.9 mcg/g of nails
 
LEAD
0.0-3.9 mcg/g of nails
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
MERCURY
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-0.9 mcg/g of nails

A2F/83341: Hemoglobin A2 and F, Blood

HEMOGLOBIN A2
1-30 days: 0.0-2.1%
1-2 months: 0.0-2.6%
3-5 months: 1.3-3.1%
> or =6 months: 2.0-3.3%
 
HEMOGLOBIN F
1-30 days: 22.8-92.0%
1-2 months: 7.6-89.8%
3-5 months: 1.6-42.2%
6-8 months: 0.0-16.7%
9-12 months: 0.0-10.5%
13-17 months: 0.0-7.9%
18-23 months: 0.0-6.3%
> or =24 months: 0.0-0.9%

HBELC/81626: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Cascade, Blood

HEMOGLOBIN A
1-30 days: 5.9-77.2%
1-2 months: 7.9-92.4%
3-5 months: 54.7-97.1%
6-8 months: 80.0-98.0%
9-12 months: 86.2-98.0%
13-17 months: 88.8-98.0%
18-23 months: 90.4-98.0%
> or =24 months: 95.8-98.0%
 
HEMOGLOBIN A2
1-30 days: 0.0-2.1%
1-2 months: 0.0-2.6%
3-5 months: 1.3-3.1%
> or =6 months: 2.0-3.3%
 
HEMOGLOBIN F
1-30 days: 22.8-92.0%
1-2 months: 7.6-89.8%
3-5 months: 1.6-42.2%
6-8 months: 0.0-16.7%
9-12 months: 0.0-10.5%
13-17 months: 0.0-7.9%
18-23 months: 0.0-6.3%
> or =24 months: 0.0-0.9%
 
VARIANT
No abnormal variants
 
VARIANT 2
No abnormal variants
 
VARIANT 3
No abnormal variants

HBF/8269: Hemoglobin F, Blood

1-30 days: 22.8-92.0%
1-2 months: 7.6-89.8%
3-5 months: 1.6-42.2%
6-8 months: 0.0-16.7%
9-12 months: 0.0-10.5%
13-17 months: 0.0-7.9%
18-23 months: 0.0-6.3%
> or =24 months: 0.0-0.9%

SFMON/60205: Hemoglobin S and Hemoglobin F Quantitation for Therapeutic Monitoring, Blood

HEMOGLOBIN F
1-30 days: 22.8-92.0%
1-2 months: 7.6-89.8%
3-5 months: 1.6-42.2%
6-8 months: 0.0-16.7%
9-12 months: 0.0-10.5%
13-17 months: 0.0-7.9%
18-23 months: 0.0-6.3%
> or =24 months: 0.0-0.9%
 
HEMOGLOBIN S
All ages: 0.0%

HEPN/80609: Heparin Anti-Xa Assay, Plasma

> or =18 years
UFH therapeutic range: 0.30-0.70 IU/mL
LMWH therapeutic range:
0.50-1.00 IU/mL for twice daily dosing
1.00-2.00 IU/mL for once daily dosing
(sample obtained 4-6 hours following subcutaneous injection)
 
> or =8 weeks-17 years
UFH therapeutic range: 0.30-0.70 IU/mL
LMWH therapeutic range: 0.50-1.00 IU/mL (sample obtained 4-6 hours following subcutaneous injection)
LMWH prophylactic range: 0.10-0.30 IU/mL
 
<8 weeks
Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than 8 weeks of age.

NAGW/8775: Hexosaminidase A and Total Hexosaminidase, Leukocytes

HEXOSAMINIDASE TOTAL
< or =15 years: > or =20 nmol/min/mg
> or =16 years: 16.4-36.2 nmol/min/mg
 
HEXOSAMINIDASE PERCENT A
< or =15 years: 20-80% of total
> or =16 years: 63-75% of total

NAGS/8774: Hexosaminidase A and Total Hexosaminidase, Serum

HEXOSAMINIDASE TOTAL, S
< or =15 years: > or =20 nmol/min/mL
> or =16 years: 10.4-23.8 nmol/min/mL
 
HEXOSAMINIDASE PERCENT A, S
< or =15 years: 20-90%
> or =16 years: 56-80%

HIS/80944: Histone Autoantibodies, Serum

<1.0 Units (negative)
1.0-1.5 Units (borderline)
>1.5 Units (positive)
Units are arbitrarily based on positive control serum.
Reference values apply to all ages.

HVA/9253: Homovanillic Acid (HVA), 24 Hour, Urine

<1 year: <35.0 mg/g creatinine
1 year: <23.0 mg/g creatinine
2-4 years: <13.5 mg/g creatinine
5-9 years: <9.0 mg/g creatinine
10-14 years: <12.0 mg/g creatinine
> or =15 years (adults): <8 mg/24 hours

HVAR/60275: Homovanillic Acid (HVA), Random, Urine

<1 year: <35.0 mg/g creatinine
1 year: <23.0 mg/g creatinine
2-4 years: <13.5 mg/g creatinine
5-9 years: <9.0 mg/g creatinine
10-14 years: <12.0 mg/g creatinine
> or =15 years (adults): < or =10.0 mg/g creatinine

HMDP/89220: Hyperimmunoglobulin M (Hyper-IgM) Defects Panel

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

HYOX/86213: Hyperoxaluria Panel, Urine

GLYCOLATE
0-31 days: 0-57 mg/g creatinine
1-5 months: 0-54 mg/g creatinine
6-12 months: 0-60 mg/g creatinine
1-5 years: 0-89 mg/g creatinine
> or =6 years: 0-78 mg/g creatinine
 
GLYCERATE
0-31 days: 0-38 mg/g creatinine
1-5 months: 0-71 mg/g creatinine
6-12 months: 0-56 mg/g creatinine
1-5 years: 0-17 mg/g creatinine
> or =6 years: 0-8 mg/g creatinine
 
OXALATE
0-31 days: 0-301 mg/g creatinine
1-5 months: 0-398 mg/g creatinine
6-12 months: 0-280 mg/g creatinine
1-5 years: 0-128 mg/g creatinine
6-10 years: 0-72 mg/g creatinine
> or =11 years: 0-56 mg/g creatinine
 
GLYOXYLATE
0-31 days: 0.0-7.9 mg/g creatinine
1-5 months: 0.0-11.4 mg/g creatinine
6-12 months: 0.0-5.5 mg/g creatinine
1-5 years: 0.0-3.9 mg/g creatinine
> or =6 years: 0.0-2.9 mg/g creatinine

SAL/8768: Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis IgG Antibodies, Serum

Aspergillus fumigatus, IgG ANTIBODIES
<4 years: not established
> or =4 years: < or =102 mg/L
 
Micropolyspora faeni, IgG ANTIBODIES
0-12 years: < or =4.9 mg/L
13-18 years: < or =9.1 mg/L
>18 years: < or =13.2 mg/L
 
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, IgG ANTIBODIES
0-12 years: < or =6.6 mg/L
13-18 years: < or =11.0 mg/L
>18 years: < or =23.9 mg/L

IGAS/87938: IgA Subclasses, Serum

IgA
0-<5 months: 7-37 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 16-50 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 27-66 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 36-79 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 27-246 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 29-256 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 34-274 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 42-295 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 52-319 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 60-337 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 61-356 mg/dL
 
IgA1
0-<5 months: 10-34 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 14-41 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 20-50 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 24-58 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 16-162 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 17-187 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 21-221 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 27-250 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 36-275 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 44-289 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 50-314 mg/dL
 
IgA2
0-<5 months: 0.4-5.5 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 1.5-6.2 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 2.8-7.0 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 3.9-7.7 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 1.3-31.1 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 1.1-39.1 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 1.4-48.0 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 2.6-53.4 mg/dL
13-<16 years:  4.7-55.1 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 6.6-54.3 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 9.7-156.0 mg/dL

IGGS/9259: IgG Subclasses, Serum

TOTAL IgG
0-<5 months: 100-334 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 164-588 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 246-904 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 313-1,170 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 295-1,156 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 386-1,470 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 462-1,682 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 503-1,719 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 509-1,580 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 487-1,327 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 767-1,590 mg/dL
 
IgG1
0-<5 months: 56-215 mg/dL  
5-<9 months: 102-369 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 160-562 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 209-724 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 158-721 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 209-902 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 253-1,019 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 280-1,030 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 289-934 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 283-772 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 341-894 mg/dL
 
IgG2
0-<5 months: < or =82 mg/dL
5-<9 months: < or =89 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 24-98 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 35-105 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 39-176 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 44-316 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 54-435 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 66-502 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 82-516 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 98-486 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 171-632 mg/dL
 
IgG3
0-<5 months: 7.6-82.3 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 11.9-74.0 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 17.3-63.7 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 21.9-55.0 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 17.0-84.7 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 10.8-94.9 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 8.5-102.6 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 11.5-105.3 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 20.0-103.2 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 31.3-97.6 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 18.4-106.0 mg/dL
 
IgG4
0-<5 months: < or =19.8 mg/dL
5-<9 months: < or =20.8 mg/dL
9-<15 months: < or =22.0 mg/dL
15-<24 months: < or =23.0 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 0.4-49.1 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 0.8-81.9 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 1.0-108.7 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 1.0-121.9 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 0.7-121.7 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 0.3-111.0 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 2.4-121.0 mg/dL

IGA/8157: Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Serum

0-<5 months: 7-37 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 16-50 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 27-66 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 36-79 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 27-246 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 29-256 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 34-274 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 42-295 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 52-319 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 60-337 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 61-356 mg/dL

IGE/8159: Immunoglobulin E (IgE), Serum

Results Reported in kU/L
Age
Mean
+1SD
+2SD
0-6 weeks
0.6
2.3
8.8
7 weeks-3 months
1.0
4.1
17.0
4-6 months
1.8
7.3
30.0
7-9 months
2.6
10.0
39.0
10-23 months
3.2
13.0
53.0
2 years
5.7
23.0
93.0
3 years
8.0
32.0
128.0
4 years
10.0
40.0
160.0
5 years
12.0
48.0
192.0
6 years
14.0
56.0
224.0
7 years
16.0
63.0
248.0
8 years
18.0
71.0
280.0
9 years
20.0
78.0
304.0
10 years
22.0
85.0
328.0
Adults
13.2
41.0
127.0
 

IGG/8160: Immunoglobulin G (IgG), Serum

0-<5 months: 100-334 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 164-588 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 246-904 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 313-1,170 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 295-1,156 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 386-1,470 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 462-1,682 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 503-1,719 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 509-1,580 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 487-1,327 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 767-1,590 mg/dL

IGM/8158: Immunoglobulin M (IgM), Serum

0-<5 months: 26-122 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 32-132 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 40-143 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 46-152 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 37-184 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 37-224 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 38-251 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 41-255 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 45-244 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 49-201 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 37-286 mg/dL

IGGS4/84250: Immunoglobulin Subclass IgG4, Serum

0-<5 months: < or =19.8 mg/dL
5-<9 months: < or =20.8 mg/dL
9-<15 months: < or =22.0 mg/dL
15-<24 months: < or =23.0 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 0.4-49.1 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 0.8-81.9 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 1.0-108.7 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 1.0-121.9 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 0.7-121.7 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 0.3-111.0 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 2.4-121.0 mg/dL

IMMG/8156: Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), Serum

IgG
0-<5 months: 100-334 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 164-588 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 246-904 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 313-1,170 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 295-1,156 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 386-1,470 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 462-1,682 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 503-1,719 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 509-1,580 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 487-1,327 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 767-1,590 mg/dL
 
IgA
0-<5 months: 7-37 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 16-50 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 27-66 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 36-79 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 27-246 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 29-256 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 34-274 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 42-295 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 52-319 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 60-337 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 61-356 mg/dL
 
IgM
0-<5 months: 26-122 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 32-132 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 40-143 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 46-152 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 37-184 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 37-224 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 38-251 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 41-255 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 45-244 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 49-201 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 37-286 mg/dL

CI/8652: Inherited Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemias, 24 Hour, Urine

COPROPORPHYRIN ISOMERS I AND III
Males
25-150 mcg/24 hours
Females  
 8-110 mcg/24 hours
 
% COPROPORPHYRIN I
20-45%

INHAB/86336: Inhibin A and B, Tumor Marker, Serum

INHIBIN A, TUMOR MARKER
Males: <2.0 pg/mL
Females
<11 years: <4.7 pg/mL
11-17 years: <97.5 pg/mL
Premenopausal: <97.5 pg/mL
Postmenopausal: <2.1 pg/mL
 
INHIBIN B
Males              
0-23 months: <430 pg/mL
2-4 years: <269 pg/mL
5-7 years: <184 pg/mL
8-10 years: <214 pg/mL
11-13 years: <276 pg/mL
14-17 years: <273 pg/mL
Adults: <399 pg/mL
Females
0-23 months: <111 pg/mL
2-4 years: <44 pg/mL
5-7 years: <27 pg/mL
8-10 years: <67 pg/mL
11-13 years: <120 pg/mL
14-17 years: <136 pg/mL
Premenopausal
Follicular: <139 pg/mL
Luteal: <92 pg/mL
Postmenopausal: <10 pg/mL

INHA/81049: Inhibin A, Tumor Marker, Serum

Males: <2.0 pg/mL
Females
<11 years: <4.7 pg/mL
11-17 years: <97.5 pg/mL
Premenopausal: <97.5 pg/mL
Postmenopausal: <2.1 pg/mL

INHB/88722: Inhibin B, Serum

Males                   
0-23 months: <430 pg/mL
2-4 years: <269 pg/mL
5-7 years: <184 pg/mL
8-10 years: <214 pg/mL
11-13 years: <276 pg/mL
14-17 years: <273 pg/mL
Adults: <399 pg/mL
Females
0-23 months: <111 pg/mL
2-4 years: <44 pg/mL
5-7 years: <27 pg/mL
8-10 years: <67 pg/mL
11-13 years: <120 pg/mL
14-17 years: <136 pg/mL
Premenopausal               
Follicular: <139 pg/mL
Luteal: <92 pg/mL
Postmenopausal: <10 pg/mL

INAB/8666: Insulin Antibodies, Serum

< or =0.02 nmol/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

IGFG/35100: Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP-3) Growth Panel

INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 1
Males:
Age
ng/mL
0.1 Percentile (ng/mL)
0-11 months
15-150
3
1 year
18-179
4
2 years
22-204
5
3 years
25-224
6
4 years
28-241
8
5 years
32-259
9
6 years
36-281
11
7 years
42-311
13
8 years
49-351
16
9 years
58-401
19
10 years
70-458
24
11 years
82-516
29
12 years
93-567
35
13 years
103-603
41
14 years
111-620
46
15 years
115-618
50
16 years
115-598
52
17 years
113-566
54
18 years
109-527
 
19 years
104-484
 
20 years
98-443
 
21-25 years
83-344
 
26-30 years
75-275
 
31-35 years
71-241
 
36-40 years
69-226
 
41-45 years
64-210
 
46-50 years
59-201
 
51-55 years
56-201
 
56-60 years
51-194
 
61-65 years
47-191
 
66-70 years
46-195
 
71-75 years
42-187
 
76-80 years
39-184
 
80-85 years
37-182
 
85-90 years
35-182
 
 
Females:
Age
ng/mL
0.1 Percentile (ng/mL)
0-11 months
18-146
5
1 year
20-159
6
2 years
23-177
7
3 years
27-198
8
4 years
32-223
10
5 years
36-246
12
6 years
41-269
15
7 years
48-299
17
8 years
56-339
21
9 years
68-396
26
10 years
83-465
32
11 years
99-537
40
12 years
115-598
48
13 years
126-637
56
14 years
133-647
62
15 years
134-631
65
16 years
130-595
66
17 years
123-546
64
18 years
114-493
 
19 years
105-441
 
20 years
97-398
 
21-25 years
84-323
 
26-30 years
77-271
 
31-35 years
73-244
 
36-40 years
68-225
 
41-45 years
62-205
 
46-50 years
56-194
 
51-55 years
53-191
 
56-60 years
45-173
 
61-65 years
41-168
 
66-70 years
39-168
 
71-75 years
36-166
 
76-80 years
35-168
 
80-85 years
35-179
 
85-90 years
33-179
 
Reference values have not been established for patients that are >90 years of age.
 
IGF-1 reference values according to Tanner stages I-V(2)
Males
Stage I: 83-255 ng/mL
Stage II: 114-440 ng/mL
Stage III: 236-516 ng/mL
Stage IV: 218-580 ng/mL
Stage V: 229-522 ng/mL
Females
Stage I: 90-324 ng/mL
Stage II: 104-456 ng/mL
Stage III: 249-519 ng/mL
Stage IV: 238-574 ng/mL
Stage V: 187-509 ng/mL
 
Note: Puberty onset, ie the transition from Tanner stage 1 (prepubertal) to Tanner stage 2 (early pubertal), occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years and for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African-American girls. By contrast, for boys there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage 5 (young adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN 3
1-7 days: < or =0.7 mcg/mL
8-14 days: 0.5-1.4 mcg/mL
15 days-11 months: unavailable
1 year: 0.7-3.6 mcg/mL
2 years: 0.8-3.9 mcg/mL
3 years: 0.9-4.3 mcg/mL
4 years: 1.0-4.7 mcg/mL
5 years: 1.1-5.2 mcg/mL
6 years: 1.3-5.6 mcg/mL
7 years: 1.4-6.1 mcg/mL
8 years: 1.6-6.5 mcg/mL
9 years: 1.8-7.1 mcg/mL
10 years: 2.1-7.7 mcg/mL
11 years: 2.4-8.4 mcg/mL
12 years: 2.7-8.9 mcg/mL
13 years: 3.1-9.5 mcg/mL
14 years: 3.3-10 mcg/mL
15 years: 3.5-10 mcg/mL
16 years: 3.4-9.5 mcg/mL
17 years: 3.2-8.7 mcg/mL
18 years: 3.1-7.9 mcg/mL
19 years: 2.9-7.3 mcg/mL
20 years: 2.9-7.2 mcg/mL
21-25 years: 3.4-7.8 mcg/mL
26-30 years: 3.5-7.6 mcg/mL
31-35 years: 3.5-7.0 mcg/mL
36-40 years: 3.4-6.7 mcg/mL
41-45 years: 3.3-6.6 mcg/mL
46-50 years: 3.3-6.7 mcg/mL
51-55 years: 3.4-6.8 mcg/mL
56-60 years: 3.4-6.9 mcg/mL
61-65 years: 3.2-6.6 mcg/mL
66-70 years: 3.0-6.2 mcg/mL
71-75 years: 2.8-5.7 mcg/mL
76-80 years: 2.5-5.1 mcg/mL
81-85 years: 2.2-4.5 mcg/mL
 
Tanner Stages:
Males
Stage I: 1.2-6.4 mcg/mL
Stage II: 2.8-6.9 mcg/mL
Stage III: 3.9-9.4 mcg/mL
Stage IV: 3.3-8.1 mcg/mL
Stage V: 2.7-9.1 mcg/mL
Females
Stage I: 1.4-5.2 mcg/mL
Stage II: 2.3-6.3 mcg/mL
Stage III: 3.1-8.9 mcg/mL
Stage IV: 3.7-8.7 mcg/mL
Stage V: 2.6-8.6 mcg/mL
 
Note: Puberty onset, ie the transition from Tanner stage 1 (prepubertal) to Tanner stage 2 (early pubertal), occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years and for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African-American girls. By contrast, for boys there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage 5 (young adult) should be reached by age 18.

IGF1I/35099: Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1, Serum

Males:
Age
ng/mL
0.1 Percentile (ng/mL)
0-11 months
15-150
3
1 year
18-179
4
2 years
22-204
5
3 years
25-224
6
4 years
28-241
8
5 years
32-259
9
6 years
36-281
11
7 years
42-311
13
8 years
49-351
16
9 years
58-401
19
10 years
70-458
24
11 years
82-516
29
12 years
93-567
35
13 years
103-603
41
14 years
111-620
46
15 years
115-618
50
16 years
115-598
52
17 years
113-566
54
18 years
109-527
 
19 years
104-484
 
20 years
98-443
 
21-25 years
83-344
 
26-30 years
75-275
 
31-35 years
71-241
 
36-40 years
69-226
 
41-45 years
64-210
 
46-50 years
59-201
 
51-55 years
56-201
 
56-60 years
51-194
 
61-65 years
47-191
 
66-70 years
46-195
 
71-75 years
42-187
 
76-80 years
39-184
 
80-85 years
37-182
 
85-90 years
35-182
 
 
Females:
Age
ng/mL
0.1 Percentile (ng/mL)
0-11 months
18-146
5
1 year
20-159
6
2 years
23-177
7
3 years
27-198
8
4 years
32-223
10
5 years
36-246
12
6 years
41-269
15
7 years
48-299
17
8 years
56-339
21
9 years
68-396
26
10 years
83-465
32
11 years
99-537
40
12 years
115-598
48
13 years
126-637
56
14 years
133-647
62
15 years
134-631
65
16 years
130-595
66
17 years
123-546
64
18 years
114-493
 
19 years
105-441
 
20 years
97-398
 
21-25 years
84-323
 
26-30 years
77-271
 
31-35 years
73-244
 
36-40 years
68-225
 
41-45 years
62-205
 
46-50 years
56-194
 
51-55 years
53-191
 
56-60 years
45-173
 
61-65 years
41-168
 
66-70 years
39-168
 
71-75 years
36-166
 
76-80 years
35-168
 
80-85 years
35-179
 
85-90 years
33-179
 
Reference values have not been established for patients that are >90 years of age.
 
IGF-1 reference values according to Tanner stages I-V(2)
Males
Stage I: 83-255 ng/mL
Stage II: 114-440 ng/mL
Stage III: 236-516 ng/mL
Stage IV: 218-580 ng/mL
Stage V: 229-522 ng/mL
Females
Stage I: 90-324 ng/mL
Stage II: 104-456 ng/mL
Stage III: 249-519 ng/mL
Stage IV: 238-574 ng/mL
Stage V: 187-509 ng/mL
 
Note: Puberty onset, ie the transition from Tanner stage 1 (prepubertal) to Tanner stage 2 (early pubertal), occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years and for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African-American girls. By contrast, for boys there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage 5 (young adult) should be reached by age 18.

IGFB3/83300: Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP-3), Serum

1-7 days: < or =0.7 mcg/mL
8-14 days: 0.5-1.4 mcg/mL
15 days-11 months: unavailable
1 year: 0.7-3.6 mcg/mL
2 years: 0.8-3.9 mcg/mL
3 years: 0.9-4.3 mcg/mL
4 years: 1.0-4.7 mcg/mL
5 years: 1.1-5.2 mcg/mL
6 years: 1.3-5.6 mcg/mL
7 years: 1.4-6.1 mcg/mL
8 years: 1.6-6.5 mcg/mL
9 years: 1.8-7.1 mcg/mL
10 years: 2.1-7.7 mcg/mL
11 years: 2.4-8.4 mcg/mL
12 years: 2.7-8.9 mcg/mL
13 years: 3.1-9.5 mcg/mL
14 years: 3.3-10 mcg/mL
15 years: 3.5-10 mcg/mL
16 years: 3.4-9.5 mcg/mL
17 years: 3.2-8.7 mcg/mL
18 years: 3.1-7.9 mcg/mL
19 years: 2.9-7.3 mcg/mL
20 years: 2.9-7.2 mcg/mL
21-25 years: 3.4-7.8 mcg/mL
26-30 years: 3.5-7.6 mcg/mL
31-35 years: 3.5-7.0 mcg/mL
36-40 years: 3.4-6.7 mcg/mL
41-45 years: 3.3-6.6 mcg/mL
46-50 years: 3.3-6.7 mcg/mL
51-55 years: 3.4-6.8 mcg/mL
56-60 years: 3.4-6.9 mcg/mL
61-65 years: 3.2-6.6 mcg/mL
66-70 years: 3.0-6.2 mcg/mL
71-75 years: 2.8-5.7 mcg/mL
76-80 years: 2.5-5.1 mcg/mL
81-85 years: 2.2-4.5 mcg/mL
 
Tanner Stages:
Males
Stage I: 1.2-6.4 mcg/mL
Stage II: 2.8-6.9 mcg/mL
Stage III: 3.9-9.4 mcg/mL
Stage IV: 3.3-8.1 mcg/mL
Stage V: 2.7-9.1 mcg/mL
Females
Stage I: 1.4-5.2 mcg/mL
Stage II: 2.3-6.3 mcg/mL
Stage III: 3.1-8.9 mcg/mL
Stage IV: 3.7-8.7 mcg/mL
Stage V: 2.6-8.6 mcg/mL
 
Note: Puberty onset, ie, the transition from Tanner stage I (prepubertal) to Tanner stage II (early pubertal), occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years and for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African-American girls. By contrast, for boys there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (young adult) should be reached by age 18.

UIOD/9549: Iodine, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 93-1,125 mcg/specimen

IODU/8639: Iodine, Random, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 26-705 mcg/L

ICRU/60440: Iodine/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

16-40 years: 70-530 mcg/g Creatinine
41-70 years: 70-860 mcg/g Creatinine
>70 years: 70-1,150 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

FEU/8571: Iron, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 100-300 mcg/specimen

FET/8350: Iron, Liver Tissue

IRON
Males: 200-2,400 mcg/g dry weight
Females: 400-1,600 mcg/g dry weight
 
IRON INDEX
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <13 years of age.
<1.0 mcmol/g/year (> or =13 years)

FEUR/88970: Iron, Random, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 100-300 mcg/L

FECRU/60764: Iron/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

> or =16 years: 100-300 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

IA2/89588: Islet Antigen 2 (IA-2) Antibody, Serum

< or =0.02 nmol/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

JO1/80179: Jo 1 Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

LD_I/8679: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Isoenzymes, Serum

LD
1-30 days: 135-750 U/L
31 days-11 months: 180-435 U/L
1-3 years: 160-370 U/L
4-6 years: 145-345 U/L
7-9 years: 143-290 U/L
10-12 years: 120-293 U/L
13-15 years: 110-283 U/L
16-17 years: 105-233 U/L
> or =18 years: 122-222 U/L
 
LD ISOENZYMES
I (fast band): 17.5-28.3%
II: 30.4-36.4%
III: 19.2-24.8%
IV: 9.6-15.6%
V (slow band): 5.5-12.7%

LD/8344: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD), Serum

1-30 days: 135-750 U/L
31 days-11 months: 180-435 U/L
1-3 years: 160-370 U/L
4-6 years: 145-345 U/L
7-9 years: 143-290 U/L
10-12 years: 120-293 U/L
13-15 years: 110-283 U/L
16-17 years: 105-233 U/L
> or =18 years: 122-222 U/L

LAA/8665: Lactate, Plasma

< or =2 years: 0.6-3.2 mmol/L
>2 years: 0.6-2.3 mmol/L

LBCR/61179: Lamellar Body Count Reflex, Amniotic Fluid

Immature: <15,000/mcL
Indeterminate: 15,000-50,000/mcL
Mature: >50,000/mcL
 
Cutoffs are based on consensus protocol (Neerhof M, Dohnal JC, Ashwood ER, et al: Lamellar body counts: a consensus on protocol. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:318-320)

LBC/60450: Lamellar Body Count, Amniotic Fluid

Immature: <15,000/mcL
Indeterminate: 15,000-50,000/mcL
Mature: >50,000/mcL
 
Cutoffs are based on consensus protocol (Neerhof M, Dohnal JC, Ashwood ER, et al: Lamellar body counts: a consensus on protocol. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:318-320)

NMRLS/62189: LDL and HDL Particle Concentration NMR with Lipids, Plasma

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol; triglycerides; HDL; and LDL cholesterol) in adults ages 18 and up:
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <200 mg/dL
Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL
High: > or =240 mg/dL
 
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <150 mg/dL
Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dL
High: 200-499 mg/dL
Very high: > or =500 mg/dL
 
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low: <40 mg/dL
Normal: 40-59 mg/dL
High: > or =60 mg/dL
 
LDL CHOLESTEROL
Optimal: <100 mg/dL
Near optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL   
 
NON-HDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <130 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL
 
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) have set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in children ages 2-17:
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <170 mg/dL
Borderline high: 170-199 mg/dL
High: > or =200 mg/dL
 
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <90 mg/dL
Borderline high: 90-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL
 
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low: <40 mg/dL
Normal: 40-59 mg/dL
Desirable: > or =60 mg/dL
 
LDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <110 mg/dL
Borderline high: 110-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL
 
NON-HDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <130 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL
           
NMR LIPOPROTEIN PARTICLES TOTAL LDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adult (> or =16 years):
<1,000 nmol/L (optimal)
1,000-1,299 nmol/L (near or above optimal)
1,300-1,599 nmol/L (borderline high)
1,600-2,000 nmol/L (high)
>2,000 nmol/L (very high)
 
SMALL LDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adult (> or =16 years):
<117 nmol/L (optimal)
117-526 nmol/L (intermediate)
527-839 nmol/L (borderline high)
>839 nmol/L (high)
 
TOTAL HDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adults (> or =16 years):
<26.7 mcmol/L (low)
26.7-34.9 mcmol/L (intermediate)
>34.9 mcmol/L (optimal)
 
LARGE HDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adults (> or =16 years):
<3.1 mcmol/L (low)
<3.1-7.3 mcmol/L (intermediate)
<7.3 mcmol/L (optimal)
 
Small LDL, Total HDL and Large HDL Particle Concentrations were validated by Liposcience, Inc., 2500 Sumner Boulevard, Raleigh NC 27616.

NMRV/62188: LDL and HDL Particle Concentration NMR, Plasma

TOTAL LDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adults (> or =16 years):
<1,000 nmol/L (optimal)
1,000-1,299 nmol/L (near or above optimal)
1,300-1,599 nmol/L (borderline high)
1,600-2,000 nmol/L (high)
>2,000 nmol/L (very high)
 
SMALL LDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adults (> or =16 years):
<117 nmol/L (optimal)
117-526 nmol/L (intermediate)
527-839 nmol/L (borderline high)
>839 nmol/L (high)
 
TOTAL HDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adults (> or =16 years):
<26.7 mcmol/L (low)
26.7-34.9 mcmol/L (intermediate)
>34.9 mcmol/L (optimal)
 
LARGE HDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adults (> or =16 years):
<3.1 mcmol/L (low)
<3.1-7.3 mcmol/L (intermediate)
<7.3 mcmol/L (optimal)
 
Small LDL, Total HDL and Large HDL Particle Concentrations were validated by Liposcience, Inc., 2500 Sumner Boulevard, Raleigh NC 27616. Interpretation of LDL lipoprotein concentration should be conducted within the context of standard lipid profile results (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, calculated LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol).

LDLD/89652: LDL Cholesterol (Beta-Quantification), Serum

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for LDL-C in adults (ages 18 years and up):
Optimal: <100 mg/dL*
Near optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL
*In patients with a history of heart disease and/or diabetes an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL should be considered
 
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for LDL-C in children and adolescents (ages 2-17 years):
Desirable: <110 mg/dL
Borderline high: 110-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL

LDLPL/62187: LDL Particle Concentration NMR with Lipids, Plasma

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol; triglycerides; HDL; and LDL cholesterol) in adults ages 18 and up:
 
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <200 mg/dL
Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL
High: > or =240 mg/dL
 
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <150 mg/dL
Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dL
High: 200-499 mg/dL
Very high: > or =500 mg/dL
 
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low: <40 mg/dL
Normal: 40-59 mg/dL
High: > or =60 mg/dL
 
LDL CHOLESTEROL
Optimal: <100 mg/dL
Near optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL
 
NON-HDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <130 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL
 
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) have set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in children ages 2-17:
 
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <170 mg/dL
Borderline high: 170 -199 mg/dL
High: > or =200 mg/dL
 
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <90 mg/dL
Borderline high: 90-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL
 
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low: <40 mg/dL
Normal: 40-59 mg/dL
Desirable: > or =60 mg/dL
 
LDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <110 mg/dL
Borderline high: 110-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL
 
NON-HDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <130 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL
 
NMR LIPOPROTEIN PARTICLES : TOTAL LDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
Pediatrics (< or =15 years): not established
Adults (> or =16 years):
<1,000 nmol/L (Optimal)
1,000-1,299 nmol/L (Near or above optimal)
1,300-1,599 nmol/L (Borderline high)
1,600-2,000 nmol/L (High)
>2,000 nmol/L (Very high)

TLDLP/62186: LDL Particle Concentration NMR, Plasma

TOTAL LDL PARTICLE CONCENTRATION
< or =15 years: not established
Adults (> or =16 years):
<1,000 nmol/L (optimal)
1,000-1,299 nmol/L (near or above optimal)
1,300-1,599 nmol/L (borderline high)
1,600-2,000 nmol/L (high)
>2,000 nmol/L (very high)
Interpretation of LDL lipoprotein concentration should be conducted within the context of standard lipid profile results (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, calculated LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol).

PBBD/15070: Lead with Demographics, Blood

0-6 years: 0-4 mcg/dL
> or =7 years: 0-9 mcg/dL
Critical values
Pediatrics (< or =15 years): > or =20 mcg/dL
Adults (> or =16 years): > or =70 mcg/dL

PBU/8600: Lead, 24 Hour, Urine

0-4 mcg/specimen
Reference values apply to all ages.

PBHA/8495: Lead, Hair

0.0-3.9 mcg/g of hair
Reference values apply to all ages.

PBNA/89857: Lead, Nails

0.0-3.9 mcg/g of nails
Reference values apply to all ages.

PBRU/60246: Lead, Random, Urine

0-4 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

PBCRU/60247: Lead/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

<5 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values apply to all ages.

LCATD/83253: Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency Profile

CHOLESTEROL, TOTAL
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines (reference values):
Desirable: <200 mg/dL
Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL
High: > or =240 mg/dL
Also see age and sex adjusted reference values in Total Cholesterol-Percentile Ranking in Lipids and Lipoproteins in Blood Plasma (Serum) in Special Instructions.
 
CHOLESTERYL ESTERS
60-80% of total cholesterol
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.
 
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
155-275 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.
 
LYSOPHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE
16:0 Lysophosphatidylcholine: > or =62 mcmol/L
18:0 Lysophosphatidylcholine: > or =20 mcmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.
 
INTERPRETATION
No evidence of decreased lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity
Definitive results and an interpretive report will be provided.

LPS/8328: Lipase, Serum

> or =16 years: 10-73 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

LPSC/8053: Lipid Panel

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in adults ages 18 and up:
 
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <200 mg/dL
Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL
High: > or =240 mg/dL
 
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <150 mg/dL
Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dL
High: 200-499 mg/dL
Very high: > or =500 mg/dL
 
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low (removed HDL): <40 mg/dL
Normal: 40-60 mg/dL
High: >60 mg/dL
 
LDL CHOLESTEROL
Optimal: <100 mg/dL
Near Optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL    
 
NON HDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <130 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in children ages 2-17:
 
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <170 mg/dL
Borderline high: 170 -199 mg/dL
High: > or =200 mg/dL
 
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <90 mg/dL
Borderline high: 90-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL
 
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low HDL: <40 mg/dL
Borderline low: 40-59 mg/dL
Normal: > or =60 mg/dL
 
LDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <110 mg/dL
Borderline high: 110-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL

LMPP/83673: Lipoprotein Metabolism Profile

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in adults ages 18 and up:
 
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <200 mg/dL
Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL
High: > or =240 mg/dL
 
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <150 mg/dL
Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dL
High: 200-499 mg/dL
Very high: > or =500 mg/dL
 
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low: <40 mg/dL
Normal: 40-59 mg/dL
High: > or =60 mg/dL
 
LDL CHOLESTEROL
Optimal: <100 mg/dL
Near Optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > or =190 mg/dL    
 
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) have set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in children ages 2-17:
 
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <170 mg/dL
Borderline high: 170-199 mg/dL
High: > or =200 mg/dL
 
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <90 mg/dL
Borderline high: 90-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL
 
HDL CHOLESTEROL
Low: <40 mg/dL
Borderline low: 40-59 mg/dL
Normal: > or =60 mg/dL
 
LDL CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <110 mg/dL
Borderline high: 110-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL
 
APOLIPOPROTEIN B
Males and females > or =18 years: 48-124 mg/dL
 
VLDL CHOLESTEROL
<30 mg/dL
 
VLDL TRIGLYCERIDES
<120 mg/dL 
 
BETA-VLDL CHOLESTEROL
<15 mg/dL 
 
BETA-VLDL TRIGLYCERIDES
<15 mg/dL 
 
CHYLOMICRON CHOLESTEROL
Undetectable 
 
CHYLOMICRON TRIGLYCERIDES
Undetectable
 
Lp(a) CHOLESTEROL
Desirable: <3 mg/dL
Values > or =3 mg/dL may suggest increased risk of coronary artery disease.
 
LpX
Undetectable
 
Also see age- and sex-adjusted reference values in Lipid Reference Values for Lipoprotein Profile in Lipids and Lipoproteins in Blood Plasma (Serum) in Special Instructions.

LKM/80387: Liver/Kidney Microsome Type 1 Antibodies, Serum

< or =20.0 Units (negative)
20.1-24.9 Units (equivocal)
> or =25.0 Units (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

LUPPR/83092: Lupus Anticoagulant Profile

PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT)
10.3-12.8 seconds
 
INR
0.9-1.2
The INR is used only for patients on stable oral anticoagulant therapy. It makes no significant contribution to the diagnosis or treatment of patients whose PT is prolonged for other reasons.
 
ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME (APTT)
Adults: 26-36 seconds
The normal full-term newborn APTT may be up to 35% longer than in adults and even longer (up to twice the adult upper limit) in healthy premature infants. Typically, the APTT is in the adult reference range by age 3 months in healthy full-term infants and by age 6 months in healthy premature infants (30-60 weeks gestation)*.
26-36 seconds (>3-6 months)
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.
 
DILUTE RUSSELL'S VIPER VENOM TIME
<1.2

LH/8663: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Serum

Males
0-14 days: not established
15 days-10 years: 0.3-2.8 IU/L
11 years: 0.3-1.8 IU/L
12 years: 0.3-4.0 IU/L
13 years: 0.3-6.0 IU/L
14 years: 0.5-7.9 IU/L
15-16 years: 0.5-10.8 IU/L
17 years: 0.9-5.9 IU/L
> or =18 years: 1.8-8.6 IU/L
 
TANNER STAGES*
Stage l: 0.3-2.7 IU/L
Stage ll: 0.3-5.1 IU/L
Stage lll: 0.3-6.9 IU/L
Stage lV: 0.5-5.3 IU/L
Stage V: 0.8-11.8 IU/L
*Puberty onset occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/- 2) years. For boys there is no proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
Females
0-14 days: not established
15 days-3 years: 0.3-2.5 IU/L
4-6 years: < or =1.9 IU/L
7-8 years: < or =3.0 IU/L
9-10 years: < or =4.0 IU/L
11 years: < or =6.5 IU/L
12 years: 0.4-9.9 IU/L
13 years: 0.3-5.4 IU/L
14 years: 0.5-31.2 IU/L
15 years: 0.5-20.7 IU/L
16 years: 0.4-29.4 IU/L
17 years: 1.6-12.4 IU/L
> or =18 years
Premenopausal
Follicular: 2.1-10.9 IU/L
Midcycle: 20.0-100.0 IU/L
Luteal: 1.2-12.9 IU/L
Postmenopausal: 10.0-60.0 IU/L
 
TANNER STAGES*
Stage I: < or =2.0 IU/L
Stage II: < or =6.5 IU/L
Stage III: 0.3-17.2 IU/L
Stage IV: 0.5-26.3 IU/L
Stage V: 0.6-13.7 IU/L
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/- 2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
Pediatric ranges derived for DXI method from analytic comparison to reference method in: Elmlinger MW, Kuhnel W, Ranke MB: Reference ranges for serum concentrations of lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), estradiol (E2), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol and ferritin in neonates, children and young adults. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002;40(11):1151-1160

CLYME/83856: Lyme Disease Serology, Spinal Fluid

Negative
Reference values apply to all ages.

LPC/83399: Lysophosphatidylcholine, Plasma

16:0 LYSOPHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE
> or =16 years: > or =62 mcmol/L
 
18:0 LYSOPHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE
> or =16 years: > or =20 mcmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

MGU/8595: Magnesium, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established  
> or =16 years: 75-150 mg/specimen

MGRU/60245: Magnesium, Random, Urine

0-15 years: 110-210 mg/L
> or =16 years: 29-107 mg/L

MGS/8448: Magnesium, Serum

0-2 years: 1.6-2.7 mg/dL
3-5 years: 1.6-2.6 mg/dL
6-8 years: 1.6-2.5 mg/dL
9-11 years: 1.6-2.4 mg/dL
12-17 years: 1.6-2.3 mg/dL
>17 years: 1.7-2.3 mg/dL

MGCRU/60244: Magnesium/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

0-15 years: 110-210 mg/g creatinine
> or =16 years: 30-100 mg/g creatinine

MNU/8080: Manganese, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.1-1.2 mcg/specimen

MNRU/86154: Manganese, Random, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.1-0.9 mcg/L

MNS/8413: Manganese, Serum

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.6-2.3 ng/mL

MNCRU/60027: Manganese/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

> or =16 years: 0.1-1.3 mcg/g creatinine
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

MEPHS/83778: Mephobarbital and Phenobarbital, Serum

MEPHOBARBITAL
Therapeutic range: 1.0-7.0 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =15.0 mcg/mL
 
PHENOBARBITAL
Therapeutic range
Children: 15.0-30.0 mcg/mL
Adults: 20.0-40.0 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =60.0 mcg/mL
Concentration at which toxicity occurs varies and should be interpreted in light of clinical situation.

HGU/8592: Mercury, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0-9 mcg/specimen
Toxic concentration: >50 mcg/specimen
The concentration at which toxicity is expressed is widely variable between patients. 50 mcg/specimen is the lowest concentration at which toxicity is usually apparent.

HG/8618: Mercury, Blood

Normal: 0-9 ng/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

HGHAR/8498: Mercury, Hair

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-0.9 mcg/g of hair

HGNA/89856: Mercury, Nails

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0.0-0.9 mcg/g of nails

HGRU/60248: Mercury, Random, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 0-9 mcg/L

METAF/83006: Metanephrines, Fractionated, 24 Hour, Urine

METANEPHRINE
Males
Normotensives
3-8 years: 29-92 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 59-188 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 69-221 mcg/24 hours
> or =18 years: 44-261 mcg/24 hours
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <24 months of age.
Hypertensives: <400 mcg/24 hours
Females
Normotensives
3-8 years: 18-144 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 43-122 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 33-185 mcg/24 hours
> or =18 years: 30-180 mcg/24 hours
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <24 months of age.
Hypertensives: <400 mcg/24 hours
 
NORMETANEPHRINE
Males
Normotensives
3-8 years: 34-169 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 84-422 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 91-456 mcg/24 hours
18-29 years: 103-390 mcg/24 hours
30-39 years: 111-419 mcg/24 hours
40-49 years: 119-451 mcg/24 hours
50-59 years: 128-484 mcg/24 hours
60-69 years: 138-521 mcg/24 hours
> or =70 years: 148-560 mcg/24 hours
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <24 months of age.
Hypertensives: <900 mcg/24 hours
Females
Normotensives
3-8 years: 29-145 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 55-277 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 57-286 mcg/24 hours
18-29 years: 103-390 mcg/24 hours
30-39 years: 111-419 mcg/24 hours
40-49 years: 119-451 mcg/24 hours
50-59 years: 128-484 mcg/24 hours
60-69 years: 138-521 mcg/24 hours
> or =70 years: 148-560 mcg/24 hours
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <24 months of age.
Hypertensives: <900 mcg/24 hours
 
TOTAL METANEPHRINE
Males
Normotensives
3-8 years: 47-223 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 201-528 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 120-603 mcg/24 hours
18-29 years: 190-583 mcg/24 hours
30-39 years: 200-614 mcg/24 hours
40-49 years: 211-646 mcg/24 hours
50-59 years: 222-680 mcg/24 hours
60-69 years: 233-716 mcg/24 hours
> or =70 years: 246-753 mcg/24 hours
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <24 months of age.
Hypertensives: <1,300 mcg/24 hours
Females
Normotensives
3-8 years: 57-210 mcg/24 hours
9-12 years: 107-394 mcg/24 hours
13-17 years: 113-414 mcg/24 hours
18-29 years: 142-510 mcg/24 hours
30-39 years: 149-535 mcg/24 hours
40-49 years: 156-561 mcg/24 hours
50-59 years: 164-588 mcg/24 hours
60-69 years: 171-616 mcg/24 hours
> or =70 years: 180-646 mcg/24 hours
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <24 months of age.
Hypertensives: <1,300 mcg/24 hours

METAR/83005: Metanephrines, Fractionated, Random, Urine

METANEPHRINE/CREATININE
Normotensives
0-2 years: 82-418 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 65-332 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 41-209 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 30-154 mcg/g creatinine
> or =18 years: 29-158 mcg/g creatinine
 
NORMETANEPHRINE/CREATININE
Males
Normotensives
0-2 years: 121-946 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 92-718 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 53-413 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 37-286 mcg/g creatinine
18-29 years: 53-190 mcg/g creatinine
30-39 years: 60-216 mcg/g creatinine
40-49 years: 69-247 mcg/g creatinine
50-59 years: 78-282 mcg/g creatinine
60-69 years: 89-322 mcg/g creatinine
> or =70 years: 102-367 mcg/g creatinine
Females
Normotensives
0-2 years: 121-946 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 92-718 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 53-413 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 37-286 mcg/g creatinine
18-29 years: 81-330 mcg/g creatinine
30-39 years: 93-379 mcg/g creatinine
40-49 years: 107-436 mcg/g creatinine
50-59 years: 122-500 mcg/g creatinine
60-69 years: 141-574 mcg/g creatinine
> or =70 years: 161-659 mcg/g creatinine
 
TOTAL METANEPHRINE/CREATININE
Males
Normotensives
0-2 years: 241-1,272 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 186-980 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 110-582 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 78-412 mcg/g creatinine
18-29 years: 96-286 mcg/g creatinine
30-39 years: 106-316 mcg/g creatinine
40-49 years: 117-349 mcg/g creatinine
50-59 years: 130-386 mcg/g creatinine
60-69 years: 143-427 mcg/g creatinine
> or =70 years: 159-472 mcg/g creatinine
Females
Normotensives
0-2 years: 241-1,272 mcg/g creatinine
3-8 years: 186-980 mcg/g creatinine
9-12 years: 110-582 mcg/g creatinine
13-17 years: 78-412 mcg/g creatinine
18-29 years: 131-467 mcg/g creatinine
30-39 years: 147-523 mcg/g creatinine
40-49 years: 164-585 mcg/g creatinine
50-59 years: 184-655 mcg/g creatinine
60-69 years: 206-733 mcg/g creatinine
> or =70 years: 230-821 mcg/g creatinine

MET/81032: Methemoglobin and Sulfhemoglobin, Blood

METHEMOGLOBIN
0-11 months: not established
> or =1 year: 0.0-1.5% of total hemoglobin
 
SULFHEMOGLOBIN
0-11 months: not established
> or =1 year: 0.0-0.4% of total hemoglobin

MMAAF/81921: Methylmalonic Acid (MMA), Amniotic Fluid

<1.50 nmol/mL

MPSF/82515: Micropolyspora faeni, IgG Antibodies, Serum

0-12 years: < or =4.9 mg/L
13-18 years: < or =9.1 mg/L
>18 years: < or =13.2 mg/L

AMA/8176: Mitochondrial Antibodies (M2), Serum

Negative: <0.1 Units
Borderline: 0.1-0.3 Units
Weakly positive: 0.4-0.9 Units
Positive: > or =1.0 Units
Reference values apply to all ages.

MOLUR/89473: Molybdenum, Random, Urine

<6 years: not established
6-11 years: 1-290 mcg/L
>11 years: 6-190 mcg/L

MOLUC/89474: Molybdenum/Creatinine Ratio, Urine

6-11 years: 70-240 mcg/g creatinine
>11 years: 40-100 mcg/g creatinine
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <6 years of age.

MPSEX/87997: Monoclonal Protein Study, Expanded Panel, Serum

PROTEIN, TOTAL
> or =1 year: 6.3-7.9 g/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
 
PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS
Albumin: 3.4-4.7 g/dL
Alpha-1-globulin: 0.1-0.3 g/dL
Alpha-2-globulin: 0.6-1.0 g/dL
Beta-globulin: 0.7-1.2 g/dL
Gamma-globulin: 0.6-1.6 g/dL
An interpretive comment is provided with the report.
 
IMMUNOFIXATION
Negative (reported as positive or negative)
 
KAPPA-FREE LIGHT CHAIN
0.33-1.94 mg/dL
 
LAMBDA-FREE LIGHT CHAIN
0.57-2.63 mg/dL
 
KAPPA/LAMBDA-FREE LIGHT-CHAIN RATIO
0.26-1.65

MPSS/81756: Monoclonal Protein Study, Serum

PROTEIN, TOTAL
> or =1 year: 6.3-7.9 g/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
 
PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS
Albumin: 3.4-4.7 g/dL
Alpha-1-globulin: 0.1-0.3 g/dL
Alpha-2-globulin: 0.6-1.0 g/dL
Beta-globulin: 0.7-1.2 g/dL
Gamma-globulin: 0.6-1.6 g/dL
An interpretive comment is provided with the report.
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.
 
IMMUNOFIXATION
Negative (reported as positive or negative)

MPSSC/84464: Mucopolysaccharides (MPS) Screen, Urine

MPS, QUANTITATIVE
0-4 months: < or =53.0 mg/mmol creatinine
5-18 months: < or =31.0 mg/mmol creatinine
19 months-2 years: < or =24.0 mg/mmol creatinine  
3-5 years: < or =16.0 mg/mmol creatinine
6-10 years: < or =12.0 mg/mmol creatinine
11-14 years: < or =10.0 mg/mmol creatinine
>14 years: < or =6.5 mg/mmol creatinine
 
MPS, QUALITATIVE
An interpretive report will be provided.

MPSQN/81473: Mucopolysaccharides (MPS), Quantitative, Urine

0-4 months: < or =53.0 mg/mmol creatinine
5-18 months: < or =31.0 mg/mmol creatinine
19 months-2 years: < or =24.0 mg/mmol creatinine  
3-5 years: < or =16.0 mg/mmol creatinine
6-10 years: < or =12.0 mg/mmol creatinine
11-14 years: < or =10.0 mg/mmol creatinine
>14 years: < or =6.5 mg/mmol creatinine

MSP2/83305: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Profile

OLIGOCLONAL BANDS
<4 bands
 
CSF INDEX
CSF IgG index: 0.00-0.85
CSF IgG: 0.0-8.1 mg/dL
CSF albumin: 0.0-27.0 mg/dL
Serum IgG
0-4 months: 100-334 mg/dL
5-8 months: 164-588 mg/dL
9-14 months: 246-904 mg/dL
15-23 months: 313-1,170 mg/dL
2-3 years: 295-1,156 mg/dL
4-6 years: 386-1,470 mg/dL
7-9 years: 462-1,682 mg/dL
10-12 years: 503-1,719 mg/dL
13-15 years: 509-1,580 mg/dL
16-17 years: 487-1,327 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 767-1,590 mg/dL
Serum albumin: 3,200-4,800 mg/dL
CSF IgG/albumin: 0.0-0.21
Serum IgG/albumin: 0.00-0.40
CSF IgG synthesis rate: 0-12 mg/24 hours

MGEP/83371: Myasthenia Gravis (MG) Evaluation, Pediatric

ACh RECEPTOR (MUSCLE) BINDING ANTIBODY
< or =0.02 nmol/L
 
ACh RECEPTOR (MUSCLE) MODULATING ANTIBODIES
0-20% (reported as __% loss of AChR)

MPO/80389: Myeloperoxidase Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<0.4 U (negative)
0.4-0.9 U (equivocal)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

MCA/9746: Myocardial Antibodies, Serum

Negative
If positive, results are titered.
Reference values apply to all ages.

NMHIN/83011: N-Methylhistamine, 24 Hour, Urine

0-5 years: 120-510 mcg/g creatinine
6-16 years: 70-330 mcg/g creatinine
>16 years: 30-200 mcg/g creatinine

NKCP/28562: Natural Killer (NK) Cytotoxicity Profile

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

NBILI/82133: Neonatal Bilirubin, Serum

DIRECT
> or =12 months: 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.
TOTAL
Males
12 months: 0.1-0.9 mg/dL
> or =24 months: 0.1-1.0 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.
Females
1-11 years: 0.1-0.9 mg/dL
> or =12 years: 0.1-1.0 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.

NIU/8626: Nickel, 24 Hour, Urine

0.0-6.0 mcg/specimen 
Reference values apply to all ages.

NIRU/60441: Nickel, Random, Urine

0.0-6.0 mcg/L 
Reference values apply to all ages.

NICRU/60442: Nickel/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

0.0-6.0 mcg/g creatinine
Reference values apply to all ages.

NITU/8586: Nitrogen, Total, 24 Hour, Urine

<16 years: not established
> or =16 years: 4-20 g/24 hours

NITF/8909: Nitrogen, Total, Feces

<16 years: not established
> or =16 years: 1-2 g/24 hours

PBNP/84291: NT-Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), Serum

Males
< or =45 years: 10-51 pg/mL
46 years: 10-53 pg/mL
47 years: 10-55 pg/mL
48 years: 10-56 pg/mL
49 years: 10-58 pg/mL
50 years: 10-59 pg/mL
51 years: 10-61 pg/mL
52 years: 10-62 pg/mL
53 years: 10-64 pg/mL
54 years: 10-67 pg/mL
55 years: 10-68 pg/mL
56 years: 10-70 pg/mL
57 years: 10-71 pg/mL
58 years: 10-73 pg/mL
59 years: 10-76 pg/mL
60 years: 10-77 pg/mL
61 years: 10-79 pg/mL
62 years: 10-82 pg/mL
63 years: 10-83 pg/mL
64 years: 10-85 pg/mL
65 years: 10-88 pg/mL
66 years: 10-89 pg/mL
67 years: 10-92 pg/mL
68 years: 10-95 pg/mL
69 years: 10-97 pg/mL
70 years: 10-100 pg/mL
71 years: 10-103 pg/mL
72 years: 10-104 pg/mL
73 years: 10-107 pg/mL
74 years: 10-110 pg/mL
75 years: 10-113 pg/mL
76 years: 10-116 pg/mL
77 years: 10-119 pg/mL
78 years: 10-122 pg/mL
79 years: 10-125 pg/mL
80 years: 10-128 pg/mL
81 years: 10-131 pg/mL
82 years: 10-135 pg/mL
> or =83 years: 10-138 pg/mL
Females
< or =46 years: 10-140 pg/mL
47 years: 10-141 pg/mL
48 years: 10-144 pg/mL
49 years: 10-146 pg/mL
50 years: 10-149 pg/mL
51 years: 10-150 pg/mL
52 years: 10-152 pg/mL
53 years: 10-155 pg/mL
54 years: 10-157 pg/mL
55 years: 10-160 pg/mL
56 years: 10-162 pg/mL
57 years: 10-166 pg/mL
58 years: 10-168 pg/mL
59 years: 10-171 pg/mL
60 years: 10-173 pg/mL
61 years: 10-177 pg/mL
62 years: 10-179 pg/mL
63 years: 10-183 pg/mL
64 years: 10-185 pg/mL
65 years: 10-189 pg/mL
66 years: 10-193 pg/mL
67 years: 10-196 pg/mL
68 years: 10-199 pg/mL
69 years: 10-202 pg/mL
70 years: 10-206 pg/mL
71 years: 10-210 pg/mL
72 years: 10-214 pg/mL
73 years: 10-218 pg/mL
74 years: 10-222 pg/mL
75 years: 10-227 pg/mL
76 years: 10-230 pg/mL
77 years: 10-235 pg/mL
78 years: 10-239 pg/mL
79 years: 10-244 pg/mL
80 years: 10-248 pg/mL
81 years: 10-253 pg/mL
82 years: 10-258 pg/mL
> or =83 years: 10-263 pg/mL

NTXPR/61656: NTX-Telopeptide, 24 Hour, Urine

All units are reported in nmol Bone Collagen Equivalents/mmol creatinine.
 
Males
<6 years: 576-1,763
6-13 years: 307-1,367
14-17 years: 102-1,048
> or =18 years: 21-66
Females
<6 years: 576-1,763
6-13 years: 307-1,367
14-17 years: 55-378
> or =18 years: 19-63
 
Values are based on Mayo in-house studies of 75 children and adolescents age 3.5 to 18.5 and >100 adults.

OPATM/84326: Opiate Confirmation, Meconium

Negative
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
Cutoff concentrations
Codeine by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g
Hydrocodone by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g
Hydromorphone by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g
Morphine by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g
Oxycodone by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g
Oxymorphone by LC-MS/MS: >50 ng/g

OROT/8905: Orotic Acid, Urine

<2 weeks: 1.4-5.3 mmol/mol creatinine
2 weeks-1 year: 1.0-3.2 mmol/mol creatinine
2-10 years: 0.5-3.3 mmol/mol creatinine
> or =11 years: 0.4-1.2 mmol/mol creatinine

UOSMU/9260: Osmolality, Urine

0-11 months: 50-750 mOsm/kg
> or =12 months: 150-1,150 mOsm/kg

ROXU/85631: Oxalate, Pediatric, Random, Urine

No established reference values

PTH2/28379: Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), Serum

15-65 pg/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

PTH2P/28380: Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), with Minerals, Serum

PTH
15-65 pg/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
CALCIUM
Males
0-11 months: not established*
1-14 years: 9.6-10.6 mg/dL
15-16 years: 9.5-10.5 mg/dL
17-18 years: 9.5-10.4 mg/dL
19-21 years: 9.3-10.3 mg/dL
> or =22 years: 8.9-10.1 mg/dL
Females
0-11 months: not established*
1-11 years: 9.6-10.6 mg/dL
12-14 years: 9.5-10.4 mg/dL
15-18 years: 9.1-10.3 mg/dL
> or =19 years: 8.9-10.1 mg/dL
 
PHOSPHORUS
Males
0-11 months: not established**
1-4 years: 4.3-5.4 mg/dL
5-13 years: 3.7-5.4 mg/dL
14-15 years: 3.5-5.3 mg/dL
16-17 years: 3.1-4.7 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
Females
0-11 months: not established**
1-7 years: 4.3-5.4 mg/dL
8-13 years: 4.0-5.2 mg/dL
14-15 years: 3.5-4.9 mg/dL
16-17 years: 3.1-4.7 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
 
CREATININE
Males
0-11 months: not established
1-2 years: 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
3-4 years: 0.1-0.5 mg/dL
5-9 years: 0.2-0.6 mg/dL
10-11 years: 0.3-0.7 mg/dL
12-13 years: 0.4-0.8 mg/dL
14-15 years: 0.5-0.9 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 0.8-1.3 mg/dL
Females
0-11 months: not established
1-3 years: 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
4-5 years: 0.2-0.5 mg/dL
6-8 years: 0.3-0.6 mg/dL
9-15 years: 0.4-0.7 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 0.6-1.1 mg/dL
 
*The serum concentration of calcium varies significantly during the immediate neonatal period. In general, the serum calcium concentration decreases over the first days of life, followed by a gradual increase to adult concentrations by the second or third week of life.
**The plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate in the neonatal period can be greater than those of the adult.

PCAB/83728: Parietal Cell Antibodies, IgG, Serum

Negative: < or =20.0 Units
Equivocal: 20.1-24.9 Units
Positive: > or =25.0 Units 
Reference values apply to all ages.

PAS38/83346: Pediatric Allergy Screen 3 to 8 Years, Serum

Class
IgE kU/L
Interpretation
0
<0.35
Negative
1
0.35-0.69
Equivocal
2
0.70-3.49
Positive
3
3.50-17.4
Positive
4
17.5-49.9
Strongly positive
5
50.0-99.9
Strongly positive
6
> or =100
Strongly positive
Reference values apply to all ages.

PAS3/83345: Pediatric Allergy Screen <3 Years, Serum

Class
IgE kU/L
Interpretation
0
<0.35
Negative
1
0.35-0.69
Equivocal
2
0.70-3.49
Positive
3
3.50-17.4
Positive
4
17.5-49.9
Strongly positive
5
50.0-99.9
Strongly positive
6
> or =100
Strongly positive
Reference values apply to all ages.

PAS8/83347: Pediatric Allergy Screen >8 Years, Serum

Class
IgE kU/L
Interpretation
0
<0.35
Negative
1
0.35-0.69
Equivocal
2
0.70-3.49
Positive
3
3.50-17.4
Positive
4
17.5-49.9
Strongly positive
5
50.0-99.9
Strongly positive
6
> or =100
Strongly positive
Reference values apply to all ages.

PCPMC/89069: Phencyclidine Confirmation, Meconium

Negative
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
Cutoff concentrations
PCP by LC-MS/MS: >10 ng/g

PBAR/8252: Phenobarbital, Serum

Therapeutic concentration
Infants and children: 15.0-30.0 mcg/mL
Adults: 20.0-40.0 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =60.0 mcg/mL

PKU/8380: Phenylalanine and Tyrosine, Plasma

PHENYLALANINE
Premature: 98-213 nmol/mL
0-31 days: 38-137 nmol/mL
1-24 months: 31-75 nmol/mL
2-18 years: 26-91 nmol/mL
> or =19 years: 35-85 nmol/mL
 
Conversion Formulas:
Result in mg/dL x 60.6=result in nmol/mL
Result in nmol/mL x 0.0165=result in mg/dL
 
TYROSINE
Premature: 147-420 nmol/mL
0-31 days: 55-147 nmol/mL
1-24 months: 22-108 nmol/mL
2-18 years: 24-115 nmol/mL
> or =19 years: 34-112 nmol/mL
 
Conversion Formulas:
Result in mg/dL x 55.6=result in nmol/mL
Result in nmol/mL x 0.0181=result in mg/dL
See Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism in Special Instructions.

P_PB/8643: Phenytoin, Total and Phenobarbital Group, Serum

PHENYTOIN, TOTAL
Therapeutic concentration: 10.0-20.0 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =30.0 mcg/mL
 
PHENOBARBITAL
Therapeutic concentration
Infants and children: 15.0-30.0 mcg/mL
Adults: 20.0-40.0 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =60.0 mcg/mL

ACLIP/86179: Phospholipid (Cardiolipin) Antibodies, IgA, Serum

<10.0 APL (negative)
10.0-14.9 APL (borderline)
15.0-39.9 APL (weakly positive)
40.0-79.9 APL (positive)
> or =80.0 APL (strongly positive)
APL refers to IgA Phospholipid Units. One APL unit is 1 microgram of IgA antibody. 
Reference values apply to all ages.

CLPMG/82976: Phospholipid (Cardiolipin) Antibodies, IgG and IgM, Serum

<10.0 MPL or GPL (negative)
10.0-14.9 MPL or GPL (borderline)
15.0-39.9 MPL or GPL (weakly positive)
40.0-79.9 MPL or GPL (positive)
> or =80.0 MPL or GPL (strongly positive)
MPL refers to IgM Phospholipid Units. One MPL unit is 1 microgram of IgM antibody.
GPL refers to IgG Phospholipid Units. One GPL unit is 1 microgram of IgG antibody. 
Reference values apply to all ages.

CLIPG/87987: Phospholipid (Cardiolipin) Antibodies, IgG, IgM, and IgA, Serum

PHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES, IgG
<10.0 GPL (negative)
10.0-14.9 GPL (borderline)
15.0-39.9 GPL (weakly positive)
40.0-79.9 GPL (positive)
> or =80.0 GPL (strongly positive)
GPL refers to IgG Phospholipid Units. One GPL unit is 1 microgram of IgG antibody. 
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
PHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES, IgM
<10.0 MPL (negative)
10.0-14.9 MPL (borderline)
15.0-39.9 MPL (weakly positive)
40.0-79.9 MPL (positive)
> or =80.0 MPL (strongly positive)
MPL refers to IgM Phospholipid Units. One MPL unit is 1 microgram of IgM antibody. 
Reference values apply to all ages. 
 
PHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES, IgA
<10.0 APL (negative)
10.0-14.9 APL (borderline)
15.0-39.9 APL (weakly positive)
40.0-79.9 APL (positive)
> or =80.0 APL (strongly positive)
APL refers to IgA Phospholipid Units. One APL unit is 1 microgram of IgA antibody. 
Reference values apply to all ages.

GCLIP/80993: Phospholipid (Cardiolipin) Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<10.0 GPL (negative)
10.0-14.9 GPL (borderline)
15.0-39.9 GPL (weakly positive)
40.0-79.9 GPL (positive)
> or =80.0 GPL (strongly positive)
GPL refers to IgG Phospholipid Units. One GPL unit is 1 microgram of IgG antibody. 
Reference values apply to all ages.

MCLIP/81900: Phospholipid (Cardiolipin) Antibodies, IgM, Serum

<10.0 MPL (negative)
10.0-14.9 MPL (borderline)
15.0-39.9 MPL (weakly positive)
40.0-79.9 MPL (positive)
> or =80.0 MPL (strongly positive)
MPL refers to IgM Phospholipid Units. One MPL unit is 1 microgram of IgM antibody. 
Reference values apply to all ages.

PPL/8296: Phospholipids, Serum

155-275 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 16 years of age.

PHOS/8408: Phosphorus (Inorganic), Serum

Males
1-4 years: 4.3-5.4 mg/dL
5-13 years: 3.7-5.4 mg/dL
14-15 years: 3.5-5.3 mg/dL
16-17 years: 3.1-4.7 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.
Females
1-7 years: 4.3-5.4 mg/dL
8-13 years: 4.0-5.2 mg/dL
14-15 years: 3.5-4.9 mg/dL
16-17 years: 3.1-4.7 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.

RPOU/84007: Phosphorus, Pediatric, Random, Urine

No established reference values

SPB/8892: Pigeon Breeders Disease Serology, Serum

> or =16 years: < or =53.3 mg/L

PIPA/81326: Pipecolic Acid, Serum

<6 months: < or =6.0 nmol/mL
6 months-<1 year: < or =5.9 nmol/mL
1-17 years: < or =4.3 nmol/mL
> or =18 years:  < or =7.4 nmol/mL

PIPU/81248: Pipecolic Acid, Urine

<1 month: < or =223.8 nmol/mg creatinine
1-6 months: < or =123.1 nmol/mg creatinine
6 months-<1 year: < or =45.0 nmol/mg creatinine
> or =1 year: < or =5.7 nmol/mg creatinine

PLHBB/9096: Plasma Hemoglobin, Plasma

TOTAL HEMOGLOBIN
> or =12 months: 0.0-15.2 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than 12 months of age.
 
OXYHEMOGLOBIN
> or =12 months: 0.0-12.4 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than 12 months of age.

TALDO/61843: Polyols, Quantitative, Urine

 
0-11 months
1-3 years
4-17 years
> or =18 years
Erythritol
<220
<267
<171
<99
Arabinitol
<140
<149
<97
<51
Ribitol
<31
<31
<17
<11
Sedoheptulose
<76
<27
<28
<22
 
Values are expressed in mmol/mol creatinine

PBGDW/31894: Porphobilinogen Deaminase (PBGD), Washed Erythrocytes

Reference ranges have not been established for patients who are <16 years of age.
 
> or =7.0 nmol/L/sec
6.0-6.9 nmol/L/sec (indeterminate)
<6.0 nmol/L/sec (diminished)

PBGD_/88925: Porphobilinogen Deaminase (PBGD), Whole Blood

Reference ranges have not been established for patients who are <16 years of age.
 
> or =7.0 nmol/L/sec
6.0-6.9 nmol/L/sec (indeterminate)
<6.0 nmol/L/sec (diminished)

NAK/8468: Potassium and Sodium, Serum

POTASSIUM
> or =12 months: 3.6-5.2 mmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.
 
SODIUM
> or =12 months: 135-145 mmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.

KCCL/81390: Potassium, Serum

> or =12 months: 3.6-5.2 mmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.

17PRN/88646: Pregnenolone and 17-Hydroxypregnenolone

PREGNENOLONE
CHILDREN*
Males
0-6 years: not established
7-9 years: <206 ng/dL
10-12 years: <152 ng/dL
13-15 years: 18-197 ng/dL
16-17 years: 17-228 ng/dL
Tanner Stages
Stage I: <157 ng/dL
Stage II: <144 ng/dL
Stage III: <215 ng/dL
Stage IV-V: 19-201 ng/dL
 
Females
0-6 years: not established
7-9 years: <151 ng/dL
10-12 years: 19-220 ng/dL
13-15 years: 22-210 ng/dL
16-17 years: 22-229 ng/dL
Tanner Stages
Stage I: <172 ng/dL
Stage II: 22-229 ng/dL
Stage III: 34-215 ng/dL
Stage IV-V: 26-235 ng/dL
 
ADULTS
> or =18 years: 33-248 ng/dL
*Kushnir MM, Rockwood AL, Roberts WL, et al: Development and performance evaluation of a tandem mass spectrometry assay for 4 adrenal steroids. Clin Chem 2006;52(8):1559-1567
 
17-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE
CHILDREN*
Males
Premature (26-28 weeks): 1,219-9,799 ng/dL
Premature (29-36 weeks): 346-8,911 ng/dL
Full term (1-5 months): 229-3,104 ng/dL
6 months-364 days: 221-1,981 ng/dL
1-2 years: 35-712 ng/dL
3-6 years: <277 ng/dL
7-9 years: <188 ng/dL
10-12 years: <393 ng/dL
13-15 years: 35-465 ng/dL
16-17 years: 32-478 ng/dL
Tanner Stages
Stage I: <209 ng/dL
Stage II: <356 ng/dL
Stage III: <451 ng/dL
Stage IV-V: 35-478 ng/dL
 
Females
Premature (26-28 weeks): 1,219-9,799 ng/dL
Premature (29-36 weeks): 346-8,911 ng/dL
Full term (1-5 months): 229-3,104 ng/dL
6 months-364 days: 221-1,981 ng/dL
1-2 years: 35-712 ng/dL
3-6 years: <277 ng/dL
7-9 years: <213 ng/dL
10-12 years: <399 ng/dL
13-15 years: <408 ng/dL
16-17 years: <424 ng/dL
Tanner Stages
Stage I: <236 ng/dL
Stage II: <368 ng/dL
Stage III: <431 ng/dL
Stage IV-V: <413 ng/dL
 
ADULTS
Males
> or =18 years: 55-455 ng/dL
Females
> or =18 years: 31-455 ng/dL
*Kushnir MM, Rockwood AL, Roberts WL, et al: Development and performance evaluation of a tandem mass spectrometry assay for 4 adrenal steroids. Clin Chem 2006;52(8):1559-1567

PREGN/88645: Pregnenolone, Serum

CHILDREN*
Males
0-6 years: not established
7-9 years: <206 ng/dL
10-12 years: <152 ng/dL
13-15 years: 18-197 ng/dL
16-17 years: 17-228 ng/dL
Tanner Stages
Stage I: <157 ng/dL
Stage II: <144 ng/dL
Stage III: <215 ng/dL
Stage IV-V: 19-201 ng/dL
 
Females
0-6 years: not established
7-9 years: <151 ng/dL
10-12 years: 19-220 ng/dL
13-15 years: 22-210 ng/dL
16-17 years: 22-229 ng/dL
Tanner Stages
Stage I: <172 ng/dL
Stage II: 22-229 ng/dL
Stage III: 34-215 ng/dL
Stage IV-V: 26-235 ng/dL
 
ADULTS
> or =18 years: 33-248 ng/dL
*Kushnir MM, Rockwood AL, Roberts WL, et al: Development and performance evaluation of a tandem mass spectrometry assay for 4 adrenal steroids. Clin Chem 2006;52(8):1559-1567

PAD/81424: Prenatal Aneuploidy Detection, FISH

An interpretive report will be provided.

PBPR/8621: Primidone and Phenobarbital, Serum

PRIMIDONE
Therapeutic concentration
Children (<5 years): 7.0-10.0 mcg/mL
Adults: 9.0-12.5 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =15.0 mcg/mL
 
PHENOBARBITAL
Therapeutic concentration
Infants and children: 15.0-30.0 mcg/mL
Adults: 20.0-40.0 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =60.0 mcg/mL

PCT/83169: Procalcitonin, Serum

Adults and children > or =72 hours: < or =0.15 ng/mL
Children < 72 hours: <2.0 ng/mL at birth, rises to < or =20 ng/mL at 18-30 hours of age, then falls to < or =0.15 ng/mL by 72 hours of age

PGSN/8141: Progesterone, Serum

Males
Cord blood: 569-1,107 ng/mL*
0-23 months: 0.87-3.37 ng/mL*
2-9 years: <0.15 ng/mL*
10-17 years: adult levels are attained by puberty.*
> or =18 years: 0.20-1.40 ng/mL
Females
Cord blood: 569-1,107 ng/mL*
0-23 months: 0.87-3.37 ng/mL*
2-9 years: 0.20-0.24 ng/mL*
10-17 years: values increase through puberty and adolescence.*
Premenopausal
Follicular phase: 0.20-1.50 ng/mL
Ovulation phase: 0.80-3.00 ng/mL
Luteal phase: 1.70-27.00 ng/mL
Postmenopausal: <0.15-0.80 ng/mL
 
*Lippe BM, LaFranchi SH, Lavin N, et al: Serum 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone in the diagnosis and management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Pediatr 1974;85:782-787

CFX/9339: Protein C Activity, Plasma

Adults: 70%-150%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels of protein C activity (15%-50%), which may not reach adult levels until later in childhood or early adolescence.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

PCAG/9127: Protein C Antigen, Plasma

Adults: 70%-150%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels of protein C antigen (15%-50%), which may not reach adult levels until later in childhood or early adolescence.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulations Studies in Special Instructions.

S_FX/80775: Protein S Activity, Plasma

Males: 65-160%
Females
<50 years: 50-160%
> or =50 years: 65-160%
Newborn infants have normal or near-normal free protein S antigen (> or =50%), although total protein S antigen is usually below the adult reference range. There are insufficient data concerning protein S activity in normal neonates, infants, and children; but normal or near-normal activity (> or =50%) probably is present by age 3 to 6 months.

PSTF/83049: Protein S Antigen, Plasma

TOTAL
Males: 80-160%
Females
<50 years: 70-160%
> or =50 years: 80-160%
 
FREE
Males: 65-160%
Females
<50 years: 50-160%
> or =50 years: 65-160%
Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may have decreased levels of total protein S (15-50%); but because of low levels of C4bBP, free protein S may be normal or near the normal adult level (> or =50%). Total protein S reaches adult levels by 90 to 180 days postnatal.*
*See Pediatric Hemostasis References in Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

RPTU/85681: Protein, Total, Random, Urine

2-17 years: 0.0-0.10 mg/mg
18-65 years: 0.0-0.04 mg/mg
Reference values have not been established for patients less than 2 years or greater than 65 years of age.

TP/8520: Protein, Total, Serum

> or =1 year: 6.3-7.9 g/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

TPSF/872: Protein, Total, Spinal Fluid

> or =12 months: 0-35 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.

PR3/82965: Proteinase 3 Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<0.4 U (negative)
0.4-0.9 U (equivocal)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

PUPY/81420: Purine and Pyrimidine Panel, Urine

URACIL
0-2 years: < or =31 mmol/mol creatinine
3-5 years: < or =30 mmol/mol creatinine
6-11 years: < or =28 mmol/mol creatinine
12-17 years: < or =26 mmol/mol creatinine
> or =18 years: < or =35 mmol/mol creatinine
 
URIC ACID
0-2 years: < or =2,249 mmol/mol creatinine
3-5 years: < or =1,900 mmol/mol creatinine
6-11 years: < or =1,398 mmol/mol creatinine
12-17 years: < or =698 mmol/mol creatinine
> or =18 years: < or =669 mmol/mol creatinine
 
HYPOXANTHINE
0-2 years: <53 mmol/mol creatinine
3-5 years: <49 mmol/mol creatinine
6-11 years: <43 mmol/mol creatinine
12-17 years: <36 mmol/mol creatinine
> or =18 years: <40 mmol/mol creatinine
 
XANTHINE
0-2 years: <49 mmol/mol creatinine
3-5 years: <41 mmol/mol creatinine
6-11 years: <30 mmol/mol creatinine
12-17 years: <16 mmol/mol creatinine
> or =18 years: <51 mmol/mol creatinine

QUAD/81149: Quad Screen (Second Trimester) Maternal, Serum

NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS
An AFP multiple of the median (MoM) <2.5 is reported as screen negative. AFP MoMs > or =2.5 (singleton and twin pregnancies) are reported as screen positive. 
 
DOWN SYNDROME
Calculated screen risks <1/270 are reported as screen negative, risks > or =1/270 are reported as screen positive.
 
TRISOMY 18
Calculated screen risks <1/100 are reported as screen negative, risks > or =1/100 are reported as screen positive.
 
An interpretive report will be provided.

PRA/8060: Renin Activity, Plasma

0-2 years: 4.6 ng/mL/hour (mean)*
3-5 years: 2.5 ng/mL/hour (mean)*
6-8 years: 1.4 ng/mL/hour (mean)*
9-11 years: 1.9 ng/mL/hour (mean)*
12-17 years: 1.8 ng/mL/hour (mean)*
Mean data not standardized as to time of day or diet. Infants were supine, children sitting.
 
Na-depleted, upright (peripheral vein specimen)
18-39 years: 10.8 ng/mL/hour (mean)
2.9-24.0 ng/mL/hour (range)
> or =40 years: 5.9 ng/mL/hour (mean)
2.9-10.8 ng/mL/hour (range)
 
Na-replete, upright (peripheral vein specimen)
18-39 years: 1.9 ng/mL/hour (mean)
< or =0.6-4.3 ng/mL/hour (range)
> or =40 years: 1.0 ng/mL/hour (mean)
< or =0.6-3.0 ng/mL/hour (range)
*Stalker HP, Holland NH, Kotchen JM, Kotchen TA: Plasma renin activity in healthy children. J Pediatr 1976;89:256-258

RTA/9275: Reticulin Antibodies, Serum

Negative
If positive, results are titered.
 
Reference values apply to all ages.

RRBP/84447: Retinol-Binding Protein, Random, Urine

<50 years: <130 mcg/g creatinine
> or =50 years: <172 mcg/g creatinine

RIB/87837: Ribosome P Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

RNP/81357: RNP Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

SCL70/80178: Scl 70 Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

SEU/9793: Selenium, 24 Hour, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 10-35 mcg/specimen

SEUR/60077: Selenium, Random, Urine

0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 15-50 mcg/L

SES/9765: Selenium, Serum

0-2 months: 45-90 ng/mL
3-6 months: 50-120 ng/mL
7-9 months: 60-120 ng/mL
10-12 months: 70-130 ng/mL
>1 year: 70-150 ng/mL

SECRU/60083: Selenium/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

> or =16 years: 15-40 mcg/g creatinine
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <16 years of age.

SERU/87834: Serotonin, 24 Hour, Urine

< or =210 mcg/24 hours 
Reference values apply to all ages.

SHBG/9285: Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG), Serum

CHILDREN
Males
Tanner Stages*
Mean Age
Reference Range (nmol/L)
Stage I
7.1
31-167
Stage II
11.5
49-179
Stage III
13.6
5.8-182
Stage IV
15.1
14-98
Stage V
18.0
10-57
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years. For boys, there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (young adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
Females
Tanner Stages*
Mean Age
Reference Range (nmol/L)
Stage I
7.1
43-197
Stage II
10.5
7.7-119
Stage III
11.6
31-191
Stage IV
12.3
31-166
Stage V
14.5
18-144
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (young adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
ADULTS          
Males: 10-57 nmol/L
Females (non-pregnant): 18-144 nmol/L

SM/81358: Sm Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

SMA/6284: Smooth Muscle Antibodies, Serum

Negative
If positive, results are titered.
Reference values apply to all ages.

NACCL/81692: Sodium, Serum

> or =12 months: 135-145 mmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.

SSAB/82403: SS-A and SS-B Antibodies, IgG, Serum

SS-A/Ro ANTIBODIES, IgG
<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
SS-B/La ANTIBODIES, IgG
<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 (positive) 
Reference values apply to all ages.

SSA/81360: SS-A/Ro Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

SSB/81359: SS-B/La Antibodies, IgG, Serum

<1.0 U (negative)
> or =1.0 U (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

STLPC/83916: St. Louis Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid

IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10
Reference values apply to all ages.

SABP/86537: Streptococcal Antibodies Profile

ANTISTREP-O TITER
<5 years: < or =70 IU/mL
5-17 years: < or =640 IU/mL
> or =18 years: < or =530 IU/mL
 
ANTI-DNase B TITER
<5 years: < or =250 U/mL
5-17 years: < or =375 U/mL
> or =18 years: < or =300 U/mL

SSAT/82029: Supersaturation Profile, 24 Hour, Urine

SUPERSATURATION REFERENCE MEANS (DG)
Calcium oxalate: 1.77
Brushite: 0.21
Hydroxyapatite: 3.96
Uric acid: 1.04
Sodium urate: 1.76
 
INDIVIDUAL URINE ANALYTES
OSMOLALITY
0-11 months: 50-750 mOsm/kg
> or =12 months: 150-1,150 mOsm/kg
 
ALL REFERENCE RANGES BELOW ARE BASED ON 24-HOUR COLLECTIONS.
 
SODIUM
41-227 mmol/24 hours
 
POTASSIUM
17-77 mmol/24 hours
 
CALCIUM
Males: 25-300 mg/specimen*
Females: 20-275 mg/specimen*
Hypercalciuria: >350 mg/specimen
*Values are for persons with average calcium intake (ie, 600-800 mg/day).
 
MAGNESIUM
0-15 years: not established
> or =16 years: 75-150 mg/specimen
 
CHLORIDE
40-224 mmol/24 hours
 
PHOSPHORUS
<1,100 mg/specimen
 
SULFATE
7-47 mmol/specimen
 
CITRATE EXCRETION
0-19 years: not established
20 years: 150-1,191 mg/specimen
21 years: 157-1,191 mg/specimen
22 years: 164-1,191 mg/specimen
23 years: 171-1,191 mg/specimen
24 years: 178-1,191 mg/specimen
25 years: 186-1,191 mg/specimen
26 years: 193-1,191 mg/specimen
27 years: 200-1,191 mg/specimen
28 years: 207-1,191 mg/specimen
29 years: 214-1,191 mg/specimen
30 years: 221-1,191 mg/specimen
31 years: 228-1,191 mg/specimen
32 years: 235-1,191 mg/specimen
33 years: 242-1,191 mg/specimen
34 years: 250-1,191 mg/specimen
35 years: 257-1,191 mg/specimen
36 years: 264-1,191 mg/specimen
37 years: 271-1,191 mg/specimen
38 years: 278-1,191 mg/specimen
39 years: 285-1,191 mg/specimen
40 years: 292-1,191 mg/specimen
41 years: 299-1,191 mg/specimen
42 years: 306-1,191 mg/specimen
43 years: 314-1,191 mg/specimen
44 years: 321-1,191 mg/specimen
45 years: 328-1,191 mg/specimen
46 years: 335-1,191 mg/specimen
47 years: 342-1,191 mg/specimen
48 years: 349-1,191 mg/specimen
49 years: 356-1,191 mg/specimen
50 years: 363-1,191 mg/specimen
51 years: 370-1,191 mg/specimen
52 years: 378-1,191 mg/specimen
53 years: 385-1,191 mg/specimen
54 years: 392-1,191 mg/specimen
55 years: 399-1,191 mg/specimen
56 years: 406-1,191 mg/specimen
57 years: 413-1,191 mg/specimen
58 years: 420-1,191 mg/specimen
59 years: 427-1,191 mg/specimen
60 years: 434-1,191 mg/specimen
>60 years: not established
 
OXALATE
0.11-0.46 mmol/specimen
 
URIC ACID
Diet-dependent: <750 mg/specimen
 
CREATININE
15-25 mg/kg of body weight/24 hours
Reported in unit of mg/specimen

RSSAT/89834: Supersaturation Profile, Pediatric, Random, Urine

No established reference values, with the exception of the following:
 
CALCIUM/CREATININE
0-12 months: <2,100 mg/g
13-24 months: <450 mg/g
25 months-5 years: <350 mg/g
6-10 years: <300 mg/g
11-18 years: <260 mg/g
> or =19 years: <220 mg/g

TBNY/82589: T and B Quantitation, New York

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

TCIPF/60590: T- and B-Cell Quantitation and Lymphocyte Proliferation to Antigens and Mitogens Panel

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

TCAPF/60589: T- and B-Cell Quantitation and Lymphocyte Proliferation to Antigens Panel

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

TCMPF/60588: T- and B-Cell Quantitation and Lymphocyte Proliferation to Mitogens Panel

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

TBBS/9336: T- and B-Cell Quantitation by Flow Cytometry

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.
 

TREC/87959: T-Cell Receptor Excision Circles (TREC) Analysis, Blood

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

TCP/89319: T-Cell Subsets, Naive, Memory and Activated

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

TREGS/89318: T-Cell Subsets, Regulatory (Tregs)

The appropriate age-related reference values will be provided on the report.

FRT3P/600915: T3 (Triiodothyronine), Free and Total, Serum

T3, FREE
> or =1 year: 2.0-3.5 pg/mL
 
T3, TOTAL
> or =1 year: 80-190 ng/dL

FRT3/9404: T3 (Triiodothyronine), Free, Serum

> or =1 year: 2.0-3.5 pg/mL

T3/8613: T3 (Triiodothyronine), Total, Serum

> or =1 year: 80-190 ng/dL

FRT4D/8859: T4 (Thyroxine), Free by Dialysis, Serum

0.8-2.0 ng/dL
Reference values apply to all ages.

T4TF/8684: T4 (Thyroxine), Total and Free

T4 (THYROXINE), TOTAL ONLY
> or =12 months: 5.0-12.5 mcg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
 
T4 (THYROXINE), FREE
0.8-1.8 ng/dL
Elevated values are seen in patients on thyroxine therapy.

T4/8724: T4 (Thyroxine), Total Only, Serum

> or =12 months: 5.0-12.5 mcg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.

TTBS/80065: Testosterone, Total and Bioavailable, Serum

TESTOSTERONE, TOTAL
Males
0-5 months: 75-400 ng/dL
6 months-9 years: <7-20 ng/dL
10-11 years: <7-130 ng/dL
12-13 years: <7-800 ng/dL
14 years: <7-1,200 ng/dL
15-16 years: 100-1,200 ng/dL
17-18 years: 300-1,200 ng/dL
> or =19 years: 240-950 ng/dL
Tanner Stages* 
I (prepubertal): <7-20
II: 8-66
III: 26-800
IV: 85-1,200      
V (young adult): 300-950
 
Females           
0-5 months: 20-80 ng/dL
6 months-9 years: <7-20 ng/dL
10-11 years: <7-44 ng/dL
12-16 years: <7-75 ng/dL
17-18 years: 20-75 ng/dL
> or =19 years: 8-60 ng/dL
Tanner Stages*
I (prepubertal): <7-20
II: <7-47
III: 17-75
IV: 20-75
V (young adult): 12-60
 
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years and for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. For boys, there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (young adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
TESTOSTERONE, BIOAVAILABLE
Males
< or =19 years: not established
20-29 years: 83-257 ng/dL
30-39 years: 72-235 ng/dL
40-49 years: 61-213 ng/dL
50-59 years: 50-190 ng/dL
60-69 years: 40-168 ng/dL
> or =70 years: not established
Females (non-oophorectomized)
< or =19 years: not established
20-50 years (on oral estrogen): 0.8-4.0 ng/dL
20-50 years (not on oral estrogen): 0.8-10 ng/dL
>50 years: not established

TGRP/8508: Testosterone, Total and Free, Serum

TESTOSTERONE, FREE
Males: 9-30 ng/dL
Females: 0.3-1.9 ng/dL
Reference values are not established for subjects <16 years.
 
TESTOSTERONE, TOTAL
Males        
0-5 months: 75-400 ng/dL
6 months-9 years: <7-20 ng/dL
10-11 years: <7-130 ng/dL
12-13 years: <7-800 ng/dL
14 years: <7-1,200 ng/dL
15-16 years: 100-1,200 ng/dL
17-18 years: 300-1,200 ng/dL
> or =19 years: 240-950 ng/dL      
Tanner Stages* 
I (prepubertal): <7-20
II: 8-66
III: 26-800
IV: 85-1,200      
V (young adult): 300-950
 
Females           
0-5 months: 20-80 ng/dL
6 months-9 years: <7-20 ng/dL
10-11 years: <7-44 ng/dL
12-16 years: <7-75 ng/dL
17-18 years: 20-75 ng/dL
> or =19 years: 8-60 ng/dL
Tanner Stages*
I (prepubertal): <7-20
II: <7-47
III: 17-75
IV: 20-75
V (young adult): 12-60
 
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years and for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. For boys, there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (young adult) should be reached by age 18.

TTFB/83686: Testosterone, Total, Bioavailable, and Free, Serum

TESTOSTERONE, TOTAL
Males        
0-5 months: 75-400 ng/dL
6 months-9 years: <7-20 ng/dL
10-11 years: <7-130 ng/dL
12-13 years: <7-800 ng/dL
14 years: <7-1,200 ng/dL
15-16 years: 100-1,200 ng/dL
17-18 years: 300-1,200 ng/dL
> or =19 years: 240-950 ng/dL      
Tanner Stages*                            
I (prepubertal): <7-20
II: 8-66
III: 26-800
IV: 85-1,200      
V (young adult): 300-950
 
Females           
0-5 months: 20-80 ng/dL
6 months-9 years: <7-20 ng/dL
10-11 years: <7-44 ng/dL
12-16 years: <7-75 ng/dL
17-18 years: 20-75 ng/dL
> or =19 years: 8-60 ng/dL
Tanner Stages*
I (prepubertal): <7-20
II: <7-47
III: 17-75
IV: 20-75
V (young adult): 12-60
 
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years and for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. For boys, there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (young adult) should be reached by age 18.
 
TESTOSTERONE, FREE
Males: 9-30 ng/dL
Females: 0.3-1.9 ng/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 16 years of age.
 
TESTOSTERONE, BIOAVAILABLE
Males
< or =19 years: not established
20-29 years: 83-257 ng/dL
30-39 years: 72-235 ng/dL
40-49 years: 61-213 ng/dL
50-59 years: 50-190 ng/dL
60-69 years: 40-168 ng/dL
> or =70 years: not established
Females (non-oophorectomized)
< or =19 years: not established
20-50 years (on oral estrogen): 0.8-4.0 ng/dL
20-50 years (not on oral estrogen): 0.8-10 ng/dL
>50 years: not established

TTST/8533: Testosterone, Total, Serum

Males        
0-5 months: 75-400 ng/dL
6 months-9 years: <7-20 ng/dL
10-11 years: <7-130 ng/dL
12-13 years: <7-800 ng/dL             
14 years: <7-1,200 ng/dL
15-16 years: 100-1,200 ng/dL
17-18 years: 300-1,200 ng/dL
> or =19 years: 240-950 ng/dL      
Tanner Stages*                            
I (prepubertal): <7-20
II: 8-66
III: 26-800
IV: 85-1,200      
V (young adult): 300-950
 
Females           
0-5 months: 20-80 ng/dL
6 months-9 years: <7-20 ng/dL
10-11 years: <7-44 ng/dL
12-16 years: <7-75 ng/dL
17-18 years: 20-75 ng/dL
> or =19 years: 8-60 ng/dL
Tanner Stages*
I (prepubertal): <7-20
II: <7-47
III: 17-75
IV: 20-75
V (young adult): 12-60
 
*Puberty onset (transition from Tanner stage I to Tanner stage II) occurs for boys at a median age of 11.5 (+/-2) years and for girls at a median age of 10.5 (+/-2) years. There is evidence that it may occur up to 1 year earlier in obese girls and in African American girls. For boys, there is no definite proven relationship between puberty onset and body weight or ethnic origin. Progression through Tanner stages is variable. Tanner stage V (young adult) should be reached by age 18.

TLU/8603: Thallium, 24 Hour, Urine

0-1 mcg/specimen 
Reference values apply to all ages.

TLB/8149: Thallium, Blood

0-1 ng/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

TLRU/60324: Thallium, Random, Urine

0-1 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

TLCRU/60325: Thallium/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

0-1 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values apply to all ages.

THEO/8661: Theophylline, Serum

Therapeutic
Children and adults: 8.0-20.0 mcg/mL
Neonatal apnea: 6.0-11.0 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =20.0 mcg/mL

TAMV/82514: Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, IgG Antibodies, Serum

0-12 years: < or =6.6 mg/L
13-18 years: < or =11.0 mg/L
>18 years: < or =23.9 mg/L

TPMT/80291: Thiopurine Methyltransferase (TPMT), Erythrocytes

> or =15.0 U/mL RBC (normal)
10.1-14.9 U/mL RBC (low normal)
6.0-10.0 U/mL RBC (carrier)
0.0-5.9 U/mL RBC (deficient)
Reference values apply to all ages.

TGAB/84382: Thyroglobulin Antibody, Serum

<116 IU/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

HTG1/200027: Thyroglobulin, Tumor Marker, Serum

THYROGLOBULIN, TUMOR MARKER
> or =16 years: < or =33 ng/mL
Athyrotic individuals normally have human thyroglobulin values < or =2 ng/mL.
 
THYROGLOBULIN ANTIBODY SCREEN
<22 IU/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

HTG1/83069: Thyroglobulin, Tumor Marker, Serum

THYROGLOBULIN, TUMOR MARKER
> or =16 years: < or =33 ng/mL
Athyrotic individuals normally have human thyroglobulin values < or =2 ng/mL.
 
THYROGLOBULIN ANTIBODY SCREEN
<22 IU/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

TAB/82041: Thyroid Autoantibodies Profile, Serum

THYROPEROXIDASE ANTIBODIES
<9.0 IU/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
THYROGLOBULIN ANTIBODY
<116 IU/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

THSCM/83633: Thyroid Function Cascade, Serum

> or =12 months: 0.3-5.0 mIU/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.

STSH/8939: Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone-Sensitive (s-TSH), Serum

> or =12 months: 0.3-5.0 mIU/L
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

TSI/8634: Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulin (TSI), Serum

< or =1.3 TSI index
Reference values apply to all ages.

TPO/81765: Thyroperoxidase (TPO) Antibodies, Serum

<9.0 IU/mL
Reference values apply to all ages.

TBPE/8838: Thyroxine-Binding Protein Electrophoresis, Serum

THYROXINE-BINDING PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS
10.3-24.9 mcg T4/dL bound to TBG
11.5-34.1 mcg T4/dL bound to albumin
48.8-70.4 mcg T4/dL bound to prealbumin
Other protein binders: normally not present
Thyroxine-binding globulin values may be elevated in females taking estrogens and by pregnancy.
 
THYROXINE, TOTAL
> or =12 months: 5.0-12.5 mcg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.

TSTGP/83671: Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG) Antibodies, IgA and IgG Profile, Serum

tTG ANTIBODY, IgA
<4.0 U/mL (negative)
4.0-10.0 U/mL (weak positive)
>10.0 U/mL (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
tTG ANTIBODY, IgG
<6.0 U/mL (negative)
6.0-9.0 U/mL (weak positive)
>9.0 U/mL (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

TSTGP/400004: Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG) Antibodies, IgA and IgG Profile, Serum

tTG ANTIBODY, IgA
<4.0 U/mL (negative)
4.0-10.0 U/mL (weak positive)
>10.0 U/mL (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.
 
tTG ANTIBODY, IgG
<6.0 U/mL (negative)
6.0-9.0 U/mL (weak positive)
>9.0 U/mL (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

TTGA/82587: Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG) Antibody, IgA, Serum

<4.0 U/mL (negative)
4.0-10.0  U/mL (weak positive)
>10.0 U/mL (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

TTGA/400005: Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG) Antibody, IgA, Serum

<4.0 U/mL (negative)
4.0-10.0  U/mL (weak positive)
>10.0 U/mL (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

TTGG/83660: Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG) Antibody, IgG, Serum

<6.0 U/mL (negative)
6.0-9.0 U/mL (weak positive)
>9.0 U/mL (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

TTGG/400006: Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG) Antibody, IgG, Serum

<6.0 U/mL (negative)
6.0-9.0 U/mL (weak positive)
>9.0 U/mL (positive)
Reference values apply to all ages.

TRIG/8316: Triglycerides, Serum

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in adults ages 18 and up:
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <150 mg/dL
Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dL
High: 200-499 mg/dL
Very high: > or =500 mg/dL
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has set the following guidelines for lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) in children ages 2 to 17:
TRIGLYCERIDES
Normal: <90 mg/dL
Borderline high: 90-129 mg/dL
High: > or =130 mg/dL
Also see age- and sex-adjusted reference values in Triglycerides-Percentile Ranking in Lipids and Lipoproteins in Blood Plasma (Serum) in Special Instructions.

TRYPP/82955: Tryptophan, Plasma

< or =23 months: 17-75 nmol/mL
2 years-17 years: 23-80 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: 29-77 nmol/mL

TRYPU/83823: Tryptophan, Urine

< or =35 months: 14-315 nmol/mg creatinine
3-8 years: 10-303 nmol/mg creatinine
9-17 years: 15-229 nmol/mg creatinine
> or =18 years: 18-114 nmol/mg creatinine

RTRPP/88546: Tubular Reabsorption of Phosphorus, Random

TUBULAR REABSORPTION OF PHOSPHORUS
>80%
(Although, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus levels must be interpreted in light of the prevailing plasma phosphorus and glomerular filtration rate.)
 
TUBULAR MAXIMUM PHOSPHORUS REABSORPTION/GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (TmP/GFR)
2.6-4.4 mg/dL (0.80-1.35 mmol/L)
 
PHOSPHORUS (INORGANIC)
Males
1-4 years: 4.3-5.4 mg/dL
5-13 years: 3.7-5.4 mg/dL
14-15 years: 3.5-5.3 mg/dL
16-17 years: 3.1-4.7 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
Females
1-7 years: 4.3-5.4 mg/dL
8-13 years: 4.0-5.2 mg/dL
14-15 years: 3.5-4.9 mg/dL
16-17 years: 3.1-4.7 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
 
CREATININE
Males
12-24 months: 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
3-4 years: 0.1-0.5 mg/dL
5-9 years: 0.2-0.6 mg/dL
10-11 years: 0.3-0.7 mg/dL
12-13 years: 0.4-0.8 mg/dL
14-15 years: 0.5-0.9 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 0.8-1.3 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.
Females
12-36 months: 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
4-5 years: 0.2-0.5 mg/dL
6-8 years: 0.3-0.6 mg/dL
9-15 years: 0.4-0.7 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 0.6-1.1 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <12 months of age.

URIC/8440: Uric Acid, Serum

Males
1-10 years: 2.4-5.4 mg/dL
11 years: 2.7-5.9 mg/dL
12 years: 3.1-6.4 mg/dL
13 years: 3.4-6.9 mg/dL
14 years: 3.7-7.4 mg/dL
15 years: 4.0-7.8 mg/dL
> or =16 years: 3.7-8.0 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.
 
Females
1 year: 2.1-4.9 mg/dL
2 years: 2.1-5.0 mg/dL
3 years: 2.2-5.1 mg/dL
4 years: 2.3-5.2 mg/dL
5 years: 2.3-5.3 mg/dL
6 years: 2.3-5.4 mg/dL
7-8 years: 2.3-5.5 mg/dL
9-10 years: 2.3-5.7 mg/dL
11 years: 2.3-5.8 mg/dL
12 years: 2.3-5.9 mg/dL
> or =13 years:  2.7-6.1 mg/dL
Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

VCRU/60575: Vanadium/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

> or =16 years: 0.2-0.8 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

VH/9254: Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) and Homovanillic Acid (HVA), Pediatric, Urine

VMA
<1 year: <27.0 mg/g creatinine
1 year: <18.0 mg/g creatinine
2-4 years: <13.0 mg/g creatinine
5-9 years: <8.5 mg/g creatinine
10-14 years: <7.0 mg/g creatinine
> or =15 years (adults): not applicable
 
HVA
<1 year: <35 mg/g creatinine
1 year: <23 mg/g creatinine
2-4 years: <13.5 mg/g creatinine
5-9 years: <9 mg/g creatinine
10-14 years: <12 mg/g creatinine
> or =15 years (adults): not applicable

VMA/9454: Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA), 24 Hour, Urine

<1 year: <27.0 mg/g creatinine
1 year: <18.0 mg/g creatinine
2-4 years: <13.0 mg/g creatinine
5-9 years: <8.5 mg/g creatinine
10-14 years: <7.0 mg/g creatinine
> or =15 years (adults): <8.0 mg/24 hours

VMAR/60274: Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA), Random, Urine

<1 year: <27.0 mg/g creatinine
1 year: <18.0 mg/g creatinine
2-4 years: <13.0 mg/g creatinine
5-9 years: <8.5 mg/g creatinine
10-14 years: <7.0 mg/g creatinine
> or =15 years (adults): < or =6.0 mg/g creatinine

VISCS/8168: Viscosity, Serum

> or =16 years: < or =1.5 centipoises
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <16 years of age.

VAE/60299: Vitamin A and Vitamin E, Serum

VITAMIN A (RETINOL)
0-6 years: 11.3-64.7 mcg/dL
7-12 years: 12.8-81.2 mcg/dL
13-17 years: 14.4-97.7 mcg/dL
> or =18 years: 32.5-78.0 mcg/dL
 
VITAMIN E (ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL)
0-17 years: 3.8-18.4 mg/L
> or =18 years: 5.5-17.0 mg/L
Significant deficiency: <3.0 mg/L
Significant excess: >40 mg/L

VITA/60298: Vitamin A, Serum

0-6 years: 11.3-64.7 mcg/dL
7-12 years: 12.8-81.2 mcg/dL
13-17 years: 14.4-97.7 mcg/dL
> or =18 years: 32.5-78.0 mcg/dL

VITE/60297: Vitamin E, Serum

0-17 years: 3.8-18.4 mg/L
> or =18 years: 5.5-17.0 mg/L
Significant deficiency: <3.0 mg/L
Significant excess: >40 mg/L

VWFX/89792: von Willebrand Factor Activity, Plasma

55-200%  
Normal, full-term newborn infants may have mildly increased levels which reach adult levels by 90 days postnatal. Healthy, premature infants (30-36 weeks gestation) may have increased levels that reach adult levels by 180 days.
Note: Individuals of blood group "O" may have lower plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity than those of other ABO blood groups, such that apparently normal individuals of blood group "O" may have plasma VWF activity as low as 40% to 50%, whereas the lower limit of the reference range for individuals of other blood groups may be 60% to 70%.

VWAG/9051: von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Plasma

55-200%
Note: Individuals of blood group "O" may have lower plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen than those of other ABO blood groups, such that apparently normal individuals of blood group "O" may have plasma VWF antigen as low as 40% to 50%, whereas the lower limit of the reference range for individuals of other blood groups may be 60% to 70%.
Children: Neonates, infants, and children have normal or mildly increased plasma VWF antigen, with respect to the adult reference range.

WNV/84186: West Nile Virus (WNV) Antibody, IgG and IgM, Serum

IgG: negative
IgM: negative
Reference values apply to all ages.

WNVC/88680: West Nile Virus (WNV) Antibody, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid

IgG: negative
IgM: negative
Reference values apply to all ages.

WEEPC/83918: Western Equine Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid

IgG: <1:10
IgM: <1:10
Reference values apply to all ages.

ZNU/8591: Zinc, 24 Hour, Urine

300-600 mcg/specimen
Reference values apply to all ages.

ZNRU/60526: Zinc, Random, Urine

300-600 mcg/L
Reference values apply to all ages.

ZNS/8620: Zinc, Serum

0-10 years: 0.60-1.20 mcg/mL
> or =11 years: 0.66-1.10 mcg/mL

ZNCRU/60527: Zinc/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine

300-600 mcg/g Creatinine
Reference values apply to all ages.

Key