|Values are valid only on day of printing.|
Clinical distinction of type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus
Identification of individuals at risk of type 1 diabetes (including high-risk relatives of patients with diabetes)
Prediction of future need for insulin treatment in adult-onset diabetic patients
Islet cell autoantibodies have been known to be associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus for 36 years. In recent years, several autoantigens against which islet antibodies are directed have been identified. These include the tyrosine phosphatase-related islet antigen 2 (IA-2), glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, the zinc transporter ZnT8, and insulin. One or more of these autoantibodies are detected in 96% of patients with type 1 diabetes, and are detectable before clinical onset, as well as in symptomatic individuals. A serological study of 50 type 1 diabetics and 50 control subjects conducted simultaneously across 43 laboratories in 16 countries demonstrated a median sensitivity of 57% and a median specificity of 99% for IA-2 antibody in type 1 diabetes. Prospective studies in relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes have shown that development of 1 or more islet autoantibodies (including IA-2 antibody) provides an early marker of progression to type 1 diabetes. Autoantibody profiles identifying patients destined to develop type 1 diabetes are usually detectable before age 3. In 1 study of relatives seropositive for IA-2 antibody, the risk of developing type 1 diabetes within 5 years was 65.3%. Some patients with type 1 diabetes are initially diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes because of symptom onset in adulthood, societal obesity, and initial insulin-independence. These patients with "latent autoimmune diabetes in adulthood" may be distinguished from those patients with type 2 diabetes by detection of 1 or more islet autoantibodies (including IA-2).
< or =0.02 nmol/L
Reference values apply to all ages.
Seropositivity for IA-2 autoantibody (> 0.02 nmol/L) is supportive of:
-A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes
-A high risk for future development of diabetes
-A current or future need for insulin therapy in patients with diabetes
Negative results do not exclude the diagnosis of or future risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus. The risk of developing type 1 diabetes may be stratified further by testing for: 1) antibodies targeting insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) and 2) HLA genetic markers. Careful monitoring of hyperglycemia is the mainstay of determining the requirement for insulin therapy.
See clinical information and references.
1. Bingley PJ: Clinical applications of diabetes antibody testing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:25-33
2. Bingley PJ, Bonifacio E, Mueller PW: Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program: first assay proficiency evaluation. Diabetes 2003;52:1128-1136
3. Christie MR, Roll U, Payton MA, et al: Validity of screening for individuals at risk for type I diabetes by combined analysis of antibodies to recombinant proteins. Diabetes Care 1997;20:965-970
4. Lampasona V, Petrone A, Tiberti C, et al: Zinc transporter 8 antibodies complement GAD and IA-2 antibodies in the identification and characterization of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes: Non Insulin Requiring Autoimmune Diabetes (NIRAD) 4. Diabetes Care 2010;33:104-108