Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) IgG Index
As an aid in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Elevation of IgG levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (multiple sclerosis [MS], neurosyphilis, acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis) is due to local central nervous system (CNS) synthesis of IgG.
The 2 most commonly used diagnostic laboratory tests for MS are CSF index and oligoclonal banding. The CSF index is the CSF IgG to CSF albumin ratio compared to the serum IgG to serum albumin ratio. The CSF index is, therefore, an indicator of the relative amount of CSF IgG compared to serum. Any increase in the index is a reflection of IgG production in the CNS. The IgG synthesis rate is a mathematical manipulation of the CSF index data and can also be used as a marker for CNS inflammatory diseases.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
CSF index: 0.00-0.85
CSF IgG: 0.0-8.1 mg/dL
CSF albumin: 0.0-27.0 mg/dL
0-4 months: 100-334 mg/dL
5-8 months: 164-588 mg/dL
9-14 months: 246-904 mg/dL
15-23 months: 313-1,170 mg/dL
2-3 years: 295-1,156 mg/dL
4-6 years: 386-1,470 mg/dL
7-9 years: 462-1,682 mg/dL
10-12 years: 503-1,719 mg/dL
13-15 years: 509-1,580 mg/dL
16-17 years: 487-1,327 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 767-1,590 mg/dL
Serum albumin: 3,200-4,800 mg/dL
CSF IgG/albumin: 0.00-0.21
Serum IgG/albumin: 0.0-0.4
CSF IgG synthesis rate: 0-12 mg/24 hours
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG index is positive (elevated) in approximately 80% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Oligoclonal banding in CSF is also positive in approximately 80% of patients with MS. The use of CSF index plus oligoclonal banding has been reported to increase the sensitivity to over 90%.
The index is independent of the activity of the demyelinating process.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
The cerebrospinal fluid index can be elevated in other inflammatory demyelinating diseases such as neurosyphilis, acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Tourtellotte WW, Walsh MJ, Baumhefner RW, et al: The current status of multiple sclerosis intra-blood-brain-barrier IgG synthesis. Ann NY Acad Sci 1984;436:52-67
2. Bloomer LC, Bray PF: Relative value of three laboratory methods in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Clin Chem 1981;27:2011-2013
3. Hische EA, van der Helm HJ: Rate of synthesis of IgG within the blood-brain barrier and the IgG index compared in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Clin Chem 1987;33:113-114
4. Swanson JW: Multiple Sclerosis: update in diagnosis and review of prognostic factors. Mayo Clin Proc 1989;64:577-586
5. Markowitz H, Kokmen E: Neurologic diseases and the cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin profile. Mayo Clin Proc 1983;58:273-274