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Detecting antibodies bound to RBC
Investigation of hemolytic anemia
IgG antibody may be present on patient or donor (transfused) RBCs and may cause hemolysis. The antibodies may be directed against self-antigens (autoimmune hemolysis), maternal antigens (hemolytic disease of the newborn), donor antigens (eg, alloimmune transfusion reaction), or drugs.
The presence of in vivo coating of RBC with IgG can be demonstrated by the direct antiglobulin (Coombs) test.
If positive, reaction is graded (positive 1+ to 4+).
The presence or absence of IgG is used in conjunction with other testing and clinical data to aid in the characterization of Hemolysis as immune-mediated. Possible causes include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, drug-induced hemolysis, hemolytic disease of the newborn, and alloimmune reactions to recently transfused RBC.
No significant cautionary statements.