Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Molecular Detection, PCR
Rapid qualitative detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in specimens for laboratory diagnosis of disease due to this virus
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma, and in Southern China, nasopharyngeal carcinoma. EBV-associated central nervous system (CNS) disease is most commonly associated with primary CNS lymphoma in patients with AIDS. In addition, CNS infection associated with the detection of EBV DNA can be seen in immunocompetent patients.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) supports the clinical diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) disease due to the virus. EBV DNA is not detected in CSF from patients without CNS disease caused by this virus.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
A negative result does not eliminate the possibility of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of the central nervous system.
This assay may detect viremia or viral shedding in asymptomatic individuals. However, this assay is only to be used for patients with a clinical history and symptoms consistent with EBV infection, and must be interpreted in the context of the clinical picture. This test should not be used to screen asymptomatic patients.
Thirty negative specimens of each matrix accepted for this assay were spiked with Epstein-Barr positive control plasmid at the approximate limit of detection (10-20 targets/mcL). The 30 spiked specimens of each type were run in a blinded manner along with 30 negative (nonspiked) specimens; 93% to 100% of the spiked specimens were positive and 100% of the nonspiked specimens were negative.
Analytical Sensitivity/Limit of Detection (LoD):
The 95% LoD for this assay is <10 targets per microliter using plasmid and whole virus spiked into matrix. The LoD was confirmed in each matrix type that is accepted for testing with this assay.
No PCR signal was obtained from extracts of 40 bacterial and viral isolates that could cause similar symptoms including herpes simplex virus 1 and 2; cytomegalovirus; varicella zoster virus; and human herpesvirus (HHV) 6, HHV 7, and HHV 8.
Interassay precision was 100% and intra-assay precision was 100%.
This is a qualitative assay and results are reported as either negative of positive for targeted EBV DNA.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Tachikawa N, Goto M, Hoshino Y, et al: Detection of Toxoplasma gondii, Epstein-Barr virus, and JC virus DNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with focal central nervous system complications. Intern Med 1999;38(7):556-562
2. Antinori A, Cingolani A, De Luca A, et al: Epstein-Barr virus in monitoring the response to therapy of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary central nervous system lymphoma. Ann Neurol 1999;45(2):259-261
3. Cingolani A, De Luca A, Larocca LM, et al: Minimally invasive diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary central nervous system lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90(8):364-369
4. Niller HH, Wolf H, Minarovits J: Regulation and dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus latency: implications for the development of autoimmune disease. Autoimmunity 2008:41(4):298-328
5. Studahl M, Hagberg L, Rekvdar E, Bergstrom T: Herpesvirus DNA detection in cerebrospinal fluid: difference in clinical presentation between alph-, beta-, and gamma-herpes viruses. Scand J Infect Dis 2000;32(3):237-248
6. Lau AH, Soltys K, Sindhi RK, et al: Chronic high Epstein-Barr viral load carriage in pediatric small bowel transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant 2010;14(4):549-553 Epub: Jan 20