6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), Urine
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Determination of heroin use
Additional Tests Lists test(s) that are always performed, at an additional charge, with the initial test(s)
|Test ID||Reporting Name||Available Separately||Always Performed|
|ADULT||Adulterants Survey, U||No||Yes|
Testing Algorithm Delineates situation(s) when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.
An evaluation to detect the presence of adulterants will be performed and reported at no additional charge.
See Adulterant Survey Algorithm in Special Instructions.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
6MAMU/89605: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
ADULT/29345: Spectrophotometry (SP)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
6 MAM (6-Monoacetylmorphine)
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Plastic, 60-mL urine bottle
Specimen Volume: 20 mL
1. Collect a random urine specimen.
2. No preservative.
Additional Information: For situations where chain-of-custody is required, a Chain-of-Custody Kit (Supply T282) is available. For chain-of-custody information, see COCH / Chain-of-Custody Processing.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Urine||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Heroin (diacetylmorphine) is a semisynthetic opiate that is closely related to morphine. It is no longer used clinically in the United States, though elsewhere it is used for rapid relief of pain.(1) Like morphine and other opiates, its relaxing and euphoric qualities make heroin a popular drug of abuse. Heroin is commonly injected intravenously, although it can be administered by other means such as snorting, smoking, or inhaling vapors.
Heroin shares the core structure of morphine, with the addition of 2 acetyl groups, which are thought to enhance its permeation into the central nervous system.(2,3) Heroin is metabolized by sequential removal of these acetyl groups; loss of first acetyl group converts heroin into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and loss of the second acetyl group converts 6-MAM to morphine, the dominant metabolite of heroin.(2,3) Heroin is rarely found intact in urine, since only 0.1% of a dose is excreted unchanged. 6-MAM is a unique metabolite of heroin, and its presence is a definitive indication of recent heroin use. Like heroin, 6-MAM has a very short half-life and detection window.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Positives are reported with a quantitative GC-MS result.
The presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) in urine is definitive for recent heroin use. However, the absence of 6-MAM does not rule-out heroin use because of its short half-life. 6-MAM is typically only detectable within 24 hours of heroin use. 6-MAM is further metabolized into morphine, which may be detected 1 to 2 days after 6-MAM is no longer measurable. Morphine will typically be found in a specimen containing 6-MAM.(2,3)
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
While 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) is metabolized to morphine, the presence of morphine alone is not sufficient evidence to prove heroin use. 6-MAM is the only definitive metabolite of heroin.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Giovannelli M, Bedforth N, Aitkenhead A: Survey of intrathecal opioid usage in the UK. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008;25:118-1122
2. Principles of Forensic Toxicology. Second edition. Washington DC. AACC Press, 2003, pp 187-205
3. Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Gilman AG: Goodman & Gilman's. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th edition New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2001 pp 590-592
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
6-Monoacetylmorphine is extracted using solid phase extraction techniques. The eluent is evaporated, reconstituted in organic solvent, then derivatized. It is then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring.(Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|30983||6-Monoacetylmorphine by GC/MS||10975-1|
|29899||Chain of Custody||In Process|