Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) Subunit D Gene Analysis
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Diagnosis of familial SDHD gene mutations or deletions in patients with paragangliomas or pheochromocytomas
Tailoring optimal tumor-surveillance strategies for patients, when used in conjunction with phenotyping
Profile Information A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.
|Test ID||Reporting Name||Available Separately||Always Performed|
|SDHDS||SDH Subunit D Gene Analysis||No||Yes|
|SDHDQ||SDH Subunit D Gene Sequencing||No||Yes|
Testing Algorithm Delineates situation(s) when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplification/DNA Sequencing
(PCR is utilized pursuant to a license agreement with Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
SDH Subunit D Gene Analysis
SDH (Succinate Dehydrogenase) Gene
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Whole Blood EDTA
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA)
Specimen Volume: 3 mL
Collection Instructions: Send specimen in original tube.
Additional Information: Transfusions will interfere with testing for up to 4 to 6 weeks. DNA obtained from white cells may not provide useful information for patients who received a recent transfusion of blood that was not leukocyte-reduced. Wait 4 to 6 weeks until transfused cells have left the patient's circulation before drawing the patient's blood specimen for genotype testing.
1. SDHB, SDHC, SDHD Gene Testing Patient Information Sheet (Supply T659) is required in Special Instructions
2. Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Supply T576) is required in Special Instructions
3. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Supply T576) is available in Special Instructions.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Whole Blood EDTA||Refrigerated (preferred)|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a mitochondrial membrane-bound enzyme complex consisting of 4 subunits: SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD. SDH is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate (tricarboxylic acid cycle function) and the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol (respiratory chain function).
Homozygous loss of function mutations or homozygous deletions of SDH subunit genes are embryonal lethal, with the exception of some biallelic SDHA mutations, which cause Leigh syndrome. No disease-associated heterozygote SDHA mutations/deletions have been reported. By contrast, heterozygous mutations/deletions of SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD result in a high life-time penetrance autosomal dominant tumor syndrome. Patients have only 1 functioning germline copy of the affected SDH subunit gene. When the second, intact copy is somatically lost or mutated in target tissues, tumors develop. Sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia are preferentially affected, resulting in development of paragangliomas (PGL) or pheochromocytomas (PC). PGLs might include parasympathetic ganglia (neck and skull-base) or sympathetic ganglia (paravertebral sympathetic chain from neck to pelvis). PCs can involve 1 or both adrenal glands. Almost all PCs overproduce catecholamines, resulting in hypertension with a predilection for hypertensive crises. About 20% of PGL, mostly intra-abdominal, also secrete catecholamines. PGLs in the neck do not usually produce catecholamines. SDH-associated PGLs and PCs are typically benign; however, malignancy has been described in a minority of patients (especially in patients with SDHB mutations). In addition, because of the germline presence of the mutation/deletion, new primary tumors might occur over time in the various target tissues. Finally, tumors unrelated to chromaffin tissues, namely renal cell carcinoma (RCC: SDHB only) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST: SDHB, SDHC and SDHD), affect a minority of patients.
Collectively, heterozygous germline mutations/deletions of SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD are found in 30% to 50% of apparently sporadic PGL cases and can be confirmed in >90% of clinically hereditary cases. The corresponding figures are 1% to 10% and 20% to 30% for outwardly sporadic PC and seemingly inherited PC, respectively. The prevalence of SDHD mutations/deletions is higher than that of SDHB, which in turn exceeds the figures for SDHC. SDHB and SDHC mutations show classical autosomal dominant inheritance, while SDHD mutations show a modified autosomal dominant inheritance with chiefly paternal transmission, suggesting maternal imprinting (the molecular correlate of which remains unknown). SDHB is most strongly associated with PGL (usually functioning), but adrenal PCs also occur, as do occasional GISTs and RCCs, with the latter being found exclusively in this subtype. SDHD shows a disease spectrum similar to SDHB, except head and neck PGLs are more frequent than in SDHB, while functioning or malignant PGLs/PCs and GISTs are less common. SDHC has thus far been mainly associated with PGLs of skull base and neck. Abdominal/functioning PGLs or PCs are uncommonly seen in patients with SDHC mutations and GISTs are very rare. However, there is limited certainty about the SDHC genotype-phenotype correlations, as the reported case numbers are low.
Genetic testing for SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD germline mutations and deletions is highly accurate in identifying affected patients and pre-symptomatic individuals. It is advocated in all patients that present with PGL. Accurate diagnosis assists in designing optimal follow-up strategies, since the rate of new/recurrent tumors is much higher in patients with SDH mutations or deletions than in true sporadic cases.
Screening for mutations in SDH genes is not currently advocated for sporadic adrenal PC, but is gaining in popularity, often alongside tests for mutations of other predisposing genes, RET (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, MEN2), VHL (von Hippel-Lindau syndrome), and NF1 (neurofibromatosis type 1). Seemingly familial PC cases, who do not have an established diagnosis of a defined familial tumor syndrome, should be screened for SDH gene mutations, along with screening of the other predisposing genes listed above.
In order to minimize the cost of genetic testing, the clinical pattern of lesions in PGL and PC patients might be used to determine the order in which the 3 disease-associated SDH genes are tested. Genetic diagnosis of index cases allows targeted pre-symptomatic testing of relatives.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
An interpretive report will be provided.
All detected alterations will be evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations. Variants will be classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Rare unknown polymorphisms in primer or probe binding sites can rarely result in allelic drop out and false negative genetic tests.
The current test does not examine the promoters, other gene regulatory elements, or most of the intronic portions of the SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes. It is unknown what the impact of this on detection rates is. Based on observations in other genetic disorders, it is generally believed that <5% of disease-causing mutations occur in these regions.
There may be (several) other, as yet unidentified, genes that can cause a phenotypically similar picture as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutations/deletions.
Collectively, the above causes, along with various other preanalytical and analytical problems that are not unique to genetic testing (eg, specimen mix up), probably account for the estimated false-negative rate of <10% (likely <5%) that is observed with genetic SDH testing.
This test does not reliably detect deletions in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.
We sequenced the SDHB, SDHC and SDHD genes in 42 specimens that had previously been tested for SDH mutations at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). We were blinded to the original results until completion of all sequencing. All mutations found previously were confirmed. Overall 27 patients had SDHB mutations, 2 patients had SDHC mutations, and 8 patients had SDHD mutations. Inter- and intra-assay testing showed 100% concordance for all sequenced regions. Fifteen specimens from healthy individuals were also sequenced. All showed wild-type sequence for SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD.
Another 42 specimens from the NIH were tested for deletions of SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification-Luminex Flexmap technology. Seventeen specimens were found to have deleted portions of 1 of the SDH genes. These results were confirmed by the NIH. In addition, 50 specimens from healthy individuals were tested for deletions. We detected no deletions of SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD in any of these individuals.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Richards CS, Bale S, Bellissimo DB, et al: ACMG recommendations for standards for interpretation and reporting of sequence variations: Revisions 2007. Genet Med 2008 Apr;10(4):294-300
2. Briere JJ, Favier J, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Rustin P: Tricarboxylic acid cycle dysfunction as a cause of human diseases and tumor formation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2006 Dec;291(6):C1114-1120
3. Young WF Jr. Paragangliomas: clinical overview. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006 Aug;1073:21-29
4. Bornstein SR, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP: Genetic testing in pheochromocytoma: increasing importance for clinical decision making. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1073:94-103
5. Benn DE, Richardson AL, Marsh DJ, Robinson BG: Genetic testing in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma-associated syndromes. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1073:104-111
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
SDHD gene sequences are generated by PCR amplification of all 4 exons, including flanking intronic sequence, followed by automated fluorescent-dye terminator DNA sequencing.(GenBank accession numbers: NM_003002.2). The method detects mutations and small deletions, but does not detect large deletions. For detection of large deletions, order SDHDD/89555 Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) Gene, Deletion Detection.(Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday; 8 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Whole blood 60 days DNA indefinitely, patient must request opt-out
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
81404-SDHD (succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein) (eg, hereditary paraganglioma), full gene sequence
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|SDHDQ||SDH Subunit D Gene Sequencing||In Process|
|57083||Reason for Referral||42349-1|