Ketamine and Metabolite Confirmation, Urine
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Detection and confirmation of ketamine use
Additional Tests Lists test(s) that are always performed, at an additional charge, with the initial test(s)
|Test ID||Reporting Name||Available Separately||Always Performed|
|ADULT||Adulterants Survey, U||No||Yes|
Testing Algorithm Delineates situation(s) when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.
An evaluation to detect the presence of adulterants will be performed and reported at no additional charge.
See Adulterant Survey Algorithm in Special Instructions.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
KETAU: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
ADULT: Spectrophotometry (SP)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Ketamine Confirmation, U
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Plastic, 60-mL urine bottle
Specimen Volume: 20 mL
1. Collect a random urine specimen.
2. No preservative.
1. No specimen substitutions.
2. No STATS are accepted for this procedure.
3. For situations where chain of custody is required, a Chain-of-Custody Kit (Supply T282) is available. For chain-of-custody information, see COCH / Chain-of-Custody Processing.
4. Additional drug panels and specific requests are available. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories at 800-533-1710 or 507-266-5700.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Urine||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Ketamine has been used in the United States as an anesthetic induction agent since 1972. The drug acts by noncompetitive antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors.(1,2) Ketamine has become a popular street drug because of its hallucinogenic effects.(3)
Ketamine has a half-life of 3 to 4 hours, and is metabolized to norketamine.(3) The effects from ketamine last from 1 to 5 hours, and ketamine and/or norketamine can be detected in the urine for a period of 1 to 2 days following use.(4)
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
The presence of ketamine and/or norketamine >25 ng/mL is a strong indicator that the patient has used ketamine.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
A kit including all the materials necessary to complete chain-of-custody is available to ensure that the test results are appropriate for legal proceedings.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Ujhelyi MR, Robert S, Cummings DM, et al: Influence of digoxin immune Fab therapy and renal dysfunction on the disposition of total and free digoxin. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:273-277
2. Goodman and Gilman's: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th edition. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2001
3. Baselt RC. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. 7th edition. Foster City, CA. Biomedical Publications, 2004 pp 1254
4. Mozayani A: Ketamine-Effects on human performance and behavior. Forensic Sci Rev 2002;14:123-131
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Phencyclidine, norketamine, and ketamine, along with the deuterated internal standards, are extracted from buffered urine using solid-phase extraction techniques. The eluent from the column is dried and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|89443||Ketamine Confirmation, U||20537-7|
|29903||Ketamine Interpretation||In Process|
|29904||Chain of Custody||In Process|