Tay-Sachs Disease, HEXA Gene, Full Gene Analysis
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Second-tier test for confirming a biochemical diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease (TSD)
Carrier testing of individuals with a family history of TSD but an affected individual is not available for testing or disease-causing mutations have not been identified
Testing individuals with enzyme activity consistent with carrier status but negative molecular testing by a panel of common mutations
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification/DNA sequencing are utilized to test for the presence of a mutation in the HEXA gene
(PCR is utilized pursuant to a license agreement with Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
HEXA Gene, Full Gene Analysis
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD)
TSD (Tay-Sachs disease)
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD)
TSD (Tay-Sachs disease)
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Specimen must arrive within 96 hours of draw.
Specimen Type: Whole blood
Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)
Acceptable: Any anticoagulant
Specimen Volume: 3 mL
1. Invert several times to mix blood.
2. Send specimen in original tube.
1. Molecular Genetics-Biochemical Disorders Patient Information Sheet (Supply T527) in Special Instructions
2. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Supply T576) is available in Special Instructions.
3. If not ordering electronically, submit a Molecular Genetics Request Form (Supply T245) with the specimen.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A. It is characterized by accumulation of GM2 gangliosides in cells of the brain and central nervous system. The HEXA gene encodes the alpha subunit of beta-hexosaminidase A and mutations in this gene cause TSD. TSD occurs in approximately 1 in 200,000 live births with a carrier frequency of 1/250 to 1/300 in the general population. The carrier frequency for this disease in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry is 1/31.
The classic form of TSD becomes apparent in infancy when mild motor weakness is noted along with impaired visual acuity and the presence of a "startle response." Other manifestations include progressive neurodegeneration, seizures, and blindness, leading to total incapacitation and death. The subacute and adult-onset types of TSD are characterized by later ages of onset and a broad spectrum of disease symptoms and severity.
TSD is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Several common mutations in the HEXA gene account for 92% of disease-causing mutations in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Testing for these mutations is available as a panel, TSD/82588 Tay-Sachs Disease, Mutation Analysis, HEXA. In non-Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, the detection rate for the common mutations is significantly decreased. Sequencing of the entire HEXA gene detects less common disease-causing mutations.
The recommended first-tier test for TSD carrier screening and diagnosis in all patients is a biochemical test that measures hexosaminidase A activity in white blood cells, NAGW/8775 Hexosaminidase A and Total Hexosaminidase, Leukocytes. Refer to Carrier Testing for Tay-Sachs Disease and Other GM2 Gangliosidosis Variants: Supplementing Traditional Biochemical Testing with Molecular Methods, Mayo Medical Laboratories Communique 2004 Jul;29(7) for more information regarding testing strategy.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
An interpretive report will be provided.
An interpretive report will be provided.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
A small percentage of individuals who are carriers or have a diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) may have a mutation that is not identified by this method (eg, large genomic deletions, promoter mutations). The absence of a mutation(s), therefore, does not eliminate the possibility of positive carrier status or the diagnosis of TSD. For carrier testing, it is important to first document the presence of a HEXA gene mutation in an affected family member.
In some cases, DNA alterations of undetermined significance may be identified.
Rare polymorphisms exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.
A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.
Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in our interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Gravel RA, Kaback MM, Proia RL, et al: The GM2 gangliosidosis. In The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. 8th edition. Edited by CR Scriver, AL Beaudet, WS Sly, et al. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2001, pp 3827-3876
2. ACOG Committee on Genetics: ACOG Committee Opinion #318; Screening for Tay-Sachs disease. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106(4):893-894
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
DNA sequencing is utilized to test for the presence of a mutation in all 14 exons of the beta-hexosaminidase A gene (HEXA). (Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Wednesday; 10 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available) Extracted DNA: 3 months
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
81406-HEXA (hexosaminidase A, alpha polypeptide) (eg, Tay-Sachs disease), full gene sequence
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|30268||Reason For Referral||42349-1|