Molybdenum, 24 Hour, Urine
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Monitoring of parenteral nutrition
Monitoring metallic prosthetic implant wear
As an indicator of molybdenum cofactor disease
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Molybdenum, 24-Hour, U
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Collection Container/Tube: Clean, plastic urine container with no metal cap or glued insert
Submission Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube (Supply T068) or clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert
Specimen Volume: 10 mL
1. Collect urine for 24 hours.
2. No preservative.
3. See Metals Analysis-Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.
4. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.
1. 24-Hour volume is required.
2. See Urine Preservatives in Special Instructions for multiple collections.
3. High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.
Urine Preservative Collection Options
50% Acetic Acid
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Urine||Refrigerated (preferred)||28 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Molybdenum is an essential trace element found in the daily diet. It is a cofactor for some enzymes important in nitrogen metabolism (aldehyde dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidase, NADH dehydrogenase). Due to the wide distribution of molybdenum in the environment and particularly in plant materials, molybdenum deficiency is rare in adults with normal, diverse diets. Typical molybdenum intake in most geographic locations is between 45 mcg/day and 90 mcg/day.(1) Urine is the primary source of excretion, though excesses are sometimes excreted by the biliary route.
Molybdenum deficiency associated with parenteral nutrition is indicated by symptoms such as stunted growth, reduced appetite, tachycardia, tachypnea, blindness, and coma. These symptoms can be corrected by introducing molybdenum supplementation.(3) Molybdenum cofactor disease is a severe genetic disorder that is due to defective mutations in the MOCS1, MOCS2, and GEPH genes.
Molybdenum toxicity is rare and usually related to molybdenum mining exposure; however it but has been observed in cases of intake >400 mcg/day. Molybdenum interferes with copper uptake; molybdenum toxicity is predominantly due to copper deficiency (hypochromic anemia and neutropenia) and inhibition of xanthine oxidase (uric acid accumulation).
Urine molybdenum concentrations are likely to be increased above the reference range in patients with metallic joint prosthesis. Prosthetic devices produced by Zimmer Company and Johnson & Johnson typically are made of aluminum, vanadium, and titanium. Prosthetic devices produced by Depuy Company, Dow Corning, Howmedica, LCS, PCA, Osteonics, Richards Company, Tricon, and Whiteside typically are made of chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum. This list of products is incomplete, and these products change occasionally; see prosthesis product information for each device for composition details.(4-5)
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Molybdenum excretion rates are variable and related to dietary intake. Evaluation of 124 healthy adults by Mayo Clinic suggested a reference range of 22 to 173 mcg/specimen.
Prosthesis wear is known to result in increased circulating concentration of metal ions.(5-6) No increase in urine molybdenum concentration is evident with a prosthetic device in good condition. Urine concentrations >200 mcg/specimen in a patient with a molybdenum-based implant suggest significant prosthesis wear. Increased urine trace element concentrations in the absence of corroborating clinical information do not independently predict prosthesis wear or failure.
Urine molybdenum <20 mcg/specimen indicates potential deficiency.
Increased urine molybdenum may be seen in acute viral hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and other forms of liver inflammation.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Molybdenum is a trace metal commonly used in alloys and readily present in the environment, thus, contamination of the specimen must be avoided. Failure to use metal-free collection procedures and devices may cause falsely increased results. See Specimen Required for collection and processing information.
High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Department of Human Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Third National Report on Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NHANES). NCEH Publication 05-0570. July 2005
2. Shenkin A, Baines M, Fell GS, Lyon TDG: Vitamins and trace elements. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood, DA Bruns. St. Louis, Elsevier Saunders, 2006, p 1132
3. Witzleb WC, Ziegler J, Krummenauer F, et al: Exposure to chromium, cobalt and molybdenum from metal-on-metal total hip replacement and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Acta Orthop 2006;77:697-705
4. Reiss J, Johnson J: Mutations in the molybdenum cofactor biosynthetic genes MOCS1, MOCS2, and GEPH. Hum Mutat 2003 June;21:569-576
5. Chao EY, Prichard D, Moyer TP: Metal ion release in patients with porous coated megaprostheses. J Orthop Res 1995;11:A29
6. Liu TK, Liu SH, Chang CH, Yang RS: Concentration of metal elements in the blood and urine in the patients with cementless total knee arthroplasty. Tohoku J Exp Med 1998;185:253-262
7. Lhotka C, Szekes T, Stefan I, et al: Four-year study of cobalt and chromium blood levels in patients managed with two different metal-on-metal total hip replacements. J Orthop Res 2003; 21:189-195
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
This assay is performed on an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Calibrating standards and blanks are diluted with an aqueous acidic diluent containing internal standard(s). Quality control specimens and patient samples are diluted in an identical manner. In turn, all diluted blanks, calibrating standards, quality control specimens and patient specimens are aspirated into a pneumatic nebulizer and the resulting aerosol directed to the hot plasma discharge by a flow of argon. In the annular plasma the aerosol is vaporized, atomized, then ionized. The ionized gases plus neutral species formed in the annular plasma space are aspirated from the plasma through an orifice into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mass range from 1 to 263 amu is rapidly scanned multiple times and ion counts tabulated for each mass of interest. Instrument response is defined by the linear relationship of analyte concentration vs. ion count ratio (analyte ion count/internal standard ion count). Analyte concentrations are derived by reading the ion count ratio for each mass of interest and determining the concentration from the response line.(Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Thursday; 11 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|