NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Evaluation of central nervous system symptoms similar to Parkinson disease in manganese miners and processors
Characterization of liver cirrhosis
Therapeutic monitoring in treatment of cirrhosis, parenteral nutrition-related Mn toxicity and environmental exposure to Mn
Evaluation of Behcet disease
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Zeeman-Background Correction Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Royal-blue top (EDTA) Monoject trace element blood collection tube, product #8881-307022 (Supply T183)
Specimen Volume: 0.8 mL
1. See Metals Analysis-Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.
2. Send specimen in original tube.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross reject
Green top (heparin) tube
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Whole blood||Refrigerated (preferred)||10 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Manganese (Mn) is a trace element that is an essential cofactor for several enzymes, including one form of superoxide dismutase and the gluconeogenic enzymes pyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. It circulates in the serum as a metalloprotein complex with any of several proteins. The +2 and +3 states are of biological significance, but speciation in the analysis has not been studied sufficiently to determine its value. The required daily intake of 1 to 6 mg is readily supplied by a normal diet with a diverse mixture of fruits and vegetables.
Mn ores and alloys are refined and used in the making of batteries, welding rods, and high-temperature refractory materials. Environmental exposure occurs from inhalation and ingestion of Mn-containing dust and fumes occurring from the refinement processes. It is likely that inhaled Mn is mobilized up the trachea and swallowed; uptake through the gut is inefficient, about 10%.
The major compartment for circulating Mn is the erythrocytes, bound to hemoglobin, with whole blood concentrations of Mn (in normals) being 10 times that of the serum. Mn passes from the blood to the tissues quickly. Concentrations in the liver are highest, with 1 to 1.5 mg Mn/kg (wet weight) in normal individuals. The half-life of Mn in the body is about 40 days, with elimination primarily through the feces. Only small amounts are excreted in the urine.
Environmental sources of Mn can lead to toxicity. The primary sites of toxicity are the central nervous system (CNS) and the liver. Acute exposure to Mn fumes gives rise to symptoms common to many metal exposures including fever, dry mouth, and muscle pain. Chronic exposure of several months or more gives rise to CNS symptoms and rigidity, with increased scores on tremor testing and depression scales, as well as generalized parkinsonian features. Confined-space welders have been extensively studied because of their on-going exposure to metal fumes, but the reported results are difficult to assign to any 1 metal as the origin of symptoms because of worksite variability, lack of adequate controls, and analytical issues.(1) Nevertheless, reports frequently describe significant increases in Mn levels in the whole blood (or erythrocytes) and in the CNS of these workers, with some evidence that circulating levels decrease following removal of individuals from sources of exposure.
The mechanism of Mn-induced neurotoxicity is not clear. While Parkinson-like symptoms are found, the damage to nerve cells appears to be to the globus pallidus, while the nigrostriatal pathway (the focus of abnormality in Parkinson disease) is intact (although some claim it is dysfunctional). Increased levels of Mn in the CNS are not necessarily found in manganism, but this could be due to the use of inadequate analytical methodology. Animal studies, while plentiful and useful for pharmacokinetic modeling and possibly for studying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, are of little value in extrapolation to CNS aberrations in humans because of species-to-species variability in absorption and distribution, and widely divergent psychological means of evaluation.(2)
Elevated levels of whole blood Mn have been reported, with and without CNS symptoms, in patients with hepatitis B virus-induced liver cirrhosis, in patients on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with Mn supplementation, and in infants born to mothers who were on TPN. The studies in cirrhotic patients with extrapyramidal symptoms indicate a possible correlation between whole blood Mn and that measured by T1-weighted magnetic resonance in the globus pallidus and midbrain, with whole blood Mn levels being 2-fold or more, higher than normal. Increases in whole blood Mn over time may be indicative of future CNS effects. The data on TPN patients is based on anecdotes or small studies and is highly variable, as is that obtained in infants.(3)
Behcet disease, a form of chronic systemic vasculitis, has been reported to exhibit 4-fold increase in erythrocyte Mn and it is suggested that increased activity of superoxide dismutase may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.
Mn has been reported as a contaminant in "garage" preparations of the abused drug methcathinone. Continued use of the drug gives rise to CNS toxicity typical of manganism.(4)
Reports of suspected toxicity due to gustatory excess, even the drinking of large quantities of Mn-rich tea, may be dismissed as anecdotal and largely due to chance.
For monitoring therapy, whether of environmental exposure, TPN, or cirrhosis, whole blood levels have been shown to correlate well with neuropsychological improvement, although whether the laboratory changes precede the CNS or merely track with them is unclear as yet. It is recommended that both CNS functional testing and laboratory evaluation be used to monitor therapy of these patients. Long-term monitoring of Behcet disease has not been reported, and it is not known if the Mn levels respond to therapy.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Whole blood levels above the normal range are indicative of manganism. Values between 1 and 2 times the upper limit of normal may be due to differences in hematocrit and normal biological variation, and should be interpreted with caution before concluding that hypermanganesemia is contributing to the disease process. Values greater than twice the upper limit of normal correlate with disease. For longitudinal monitoring, sampling no more frequently than the half-life of the element (40 days) should be used.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Contamination of the collection site and of the specimen must be avoided. In the case of environmental evaluation, do not collect specimens in the workplace. Failure to use metal-free collection procedures and devices may cause falsely increased results. See Specimen Required and Metals Analysis-Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for collection and processing information.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Jiang Y, Zheng W, Long L, et al: Brain magnetic resonance imaging and manganese concentrations in red blood cells of smelting workers: search for biomarkers of manganese exposure. NeuroToxicology 2007;28:126-135
2. Guilarte T, Chen M, McGlothan J, et al: Nigrostriatal dopamine system dysfunction and subtle motor deficits in manganese-exposed non-human primates. Exp Neurol 2006;202:381-390
3. Choi Y, Park J, Park N, et al: Whole blood and red blood cell manganese reflected signal intensities of T1-weighted magnetic resonance images better than plasma manganese in liver cirrhotics. J Occup Health 2005;47:68-73
4. Sanotsky Y, Lesyk R, Fedoryshyn L, et al: Manganic encephalopathy due to "Ephedrone" abuse. Mov Disord 2007;22:1337-1343
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Manganese in whole blood is determined by Zeeman background correction Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Aqueous acidic calibrating standards with surfactant are diluted with a whole blood matrix containing normal concentrations of manganese. Reagent blanks are diluted using aqueous acidic calibrating standards with surfactant and reagent grade water in place of whole blood matrix. Quality control specimens and patient samples are diluted in an identical manner. In turn, all diluted blanks, calibrating standards, quality control samples and patient samples are drawn into an auto sampler tube and deposited from the tube onto the platform of the graphite rod within the furnace. The graphite rod with internal platform is placed in the light path from a hollow cathode lamp. When sufficient current is applied to this rod the temperature rises from ambient to 2450 degrees C in less than 5 seconds, atomizing the elements in the sample. Quantification is achieved by measuring the absorbance of the manganese resonance line at 279.5 nm from the hollow cathode lamp. Instrumentation response is defined by the linear relationship of analyte concentration versus the ratio of the absorption signals. After reagent blank subtraction, unknown sample concentrations are calculated by entering the net unknown intensity ratios into the linear calibration equation.(Unpublished Mayo Method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Friday; 11 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|