Biotinidase Deficiency, BTD Gene, Known Mutation
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Carrier testing of individuals with a family history of biotinidase deficiency
Diagnostic confirmation of biotinidase deficiency when familial mutations have been previously identified
Prenatal testing when 2 familial mutations have been previously identified in an affected family member
Genetics Test Information Provides information that may help with selection of the correct test or proper submission of the test request
Documentation of the specific familial mutation(s) must be provided with the specimen in order to perform this test.
Reflex Tests Lists test(s) that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial test(s)
|Test ID||Reporting Name||Available Separately||Always Performed|
|FBC||Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test||Yes||No|
|AFC||Amniotic Fluid Culture/Genetic Test||Yes||No|
|MCC||Maternal Cell Contamination, B||Yes||No|
Testing Algorithm Delineates situation(s) when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.
For prenatal specimens only: If amniotic fluid (non-confluent cultured cells) is received, amniotic fluid culture/genetic test will be added and charged separately. If chorionic villus specimen (non-confluent cultured cells) is received, fibroblast culture for genetic test will be added and charged separately. For any prenatal specimen that is received, maternal cell contamination studies will be added.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification/DNA sequencing are utilized to test for the presence of a specific mutation(s) previously identified in an affected family member in the BTD gene.
(PCR is utilized pursuant to a license agreement with Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
BTD Gene, Known Mutation
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
This test can only be performed if a mutation has previously been identified in a family member of this individual.
1. Molecular Genetics-Biochemical Disorders Patient Information Sheet (Supply T527) in Special Instructions
2. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Supply T576) is available in Special Instructions.
3. If not ordering electronically, submit a Molecular Genetics Request Form (Supply T245) with the specimen.
Specimen must arrive within 96 hours of collection.
Submit only 1 of the following specimens:
Specimen Type: Whole blood
Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)
Acceptable: Any anticoagulant
Specimen Volume: 3 mL
1. Invert several times to mix blood.
2. Send specimen in original tube.
Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated
Due to the complexity of prenatal testing, consultation with the laboratory is required for all prenatal testing. Prenatal specimens can be sent Monday through Thursday and must be received by 5 p.m. CST on Friday in order to be processed appropriately. All prenatal specimens must be accompanied by a maternal blood specimen. Order MCC/88636 Maternal Cell Contamination, Molecular Analysis on the maternal specimen.
Specimen Type: Amniotic fluid
Container/Tube: Amniotic fluid container
Specimen Volume: 20 mL
Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient
Specimen Type: Chorionic villi
Container/Tube: 15-mL tube containing 15-mL of transport media
Specimen Volume: 20 mg
Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated
Specimen Type: Confluent cultured cells
Container/Tube: T-25 flask
Specimen Volume: 2 flasks
Collection Instructions: Submit confluent cultured cells from another laboratory.
Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated OK
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Blood: 0.5 mL/Amniotic Fluid: 10 mL/Chorionic Villi: 5 mg
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Biotinidase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disease caused by reduced levels of biotinidase, an enzyme that recycles biotin by releasing it from its metabolic product, biocytin, or exogenous dietary proteins. Biotin is a vitamin that serves as a coenzyme for 4 carboxylases that are essential for amino acid catabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. Depletion of free biotin reduces carboxylase activity, resulting in secondary carboxylase deficiency. Depending on the amount of residual biotinidase activity, individuals can have either profound or partial biotinidase deficiency. Age of onset and clinical phenotype vary among individuals. Profound biotinidase deficiency occurs in approximately 1 in 137,000 live births and partial biotinidase deficiency occurs in approximately 1 in 110,000 live births, resulting in a combined incidence of about 1 in 61,000.
Untreated profound biotinidase deficiency (<10% of normal biotinidase activity) manifests within the first decade of life as seizures, hypotonia, neurosensory hearing loss, respiratory problems, and cutaneous symptoms including skin rash, alopecia, and recurrent viral or fungal infections. Among children and adolescents with profound biotinidase deficiency, clinical features include ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and eye problems such as optic neuropathy leading to blindness. Partial biotinidase deficiency (10%-30% of normal biotinidase activity) is associated with a milder clinical presentation which may include cutaneous symptoms without neurologic involvement.
Treatment with biotin has been successful in both preventing and reversing the clinical features associated with biotinidase deficiency. As a result, biotinidase deficiency is included in most newborn screening programs in order to prevent disease. Biotinidase deficiency exhibits a similar clinical presentation to carboxylase and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. Therefore, measurement of the biotinidase enzyme is required to differentiate between these diseases and ensure proper diagnosis. Newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency involves direct analysis of the biotinidase enzyme from blood spots obtained shortly after birth. This enables early identification of potentially affected individuals and quick follow-up with confirmatory biochemical and molecular testing.
Biotinidase deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, caused by mutations in the biotinidase gene (BTD). The carrier frequency for biotinidase deficiency in the general population is about 1/120. Several common mutations in the BTD gene have been identified, accounting for about 60% of affected individuals. Sequencing of the entire BTD gene detects other, less common, disease-causing mutations, increasing the overall detection rate by molecular testing in individuals with confirmed or suspected biotinidase deficiency. While genotype-phenotype correlations are not well established, it appears that certain mutations are associated with profound biotinidase deficiency while others are associated with partial biotinidase deficiency.
Site-specific testing for mutations that have already been identified in an affected patient is useful for confirming a suspected diagnosis in a family member. It is also useful for determining whether at-risk individuals are carriers of the disease and, subsequently, at risk for having a child with biotinidase deficiency.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
An interpretive report will be provided.
An interpretive report will be provided.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
The identification of a disease-causing mutation in an affected family member is necessary before predictive testing for other family members can be offered. If a familial mutation has not been previously identified, order BTDMS/89012 Biotinidase Deficiency, BTD Full Gene Analysis.
Analysis is performed for the familial mutation(s) provided only. This assay does not rule out the presence of other mutations within this gene or within other genes that may be associated with metabolic disease.
Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Any error in the diagnosis or in the pedigree provided to us, including false-paternity, could lead to erroneous interpretation of results.
A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Kaye CI, Committee on Genetics, Accurso F, et al: Newborn screening fact sheets. Pediatrics 2006 Sep;118(3):e934-963
2. Moslinger D, Muhl A, Suormala T, et al: Molecular characterization and neuropsychological outcome of 21 patients with profound biotinidase deficiency detected by newborn screening and family studies. Eur J Pediatr 2003 Dec;162 Suppl 1:S46-49 Epub 2003 Nov 20
3. Nyhan WL, Barshop B, Ozand PT: Multiple carboxylase deficiency/biotinidase deficiency. In Atlas of Metabolic Diseases. 2nd edition. New York, Oxford University Press, 2005 p 42-48
4. Wolf B, Jensen KP, Barshop B, et al: Biotinidase deficiency: novel mutations and their biochemical and clinical correlates. Hum Mutat 2005 Apr;25(4):413
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
DNA sequence analysis is used to test for the presence of a specific mutation(s) in the BTD gene that was previously identified in an affected family member. (Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday; 10 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available) Extracted DNA: 3 months
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
81403-Known familial variant not otherwise specified, for gene listed in Tier 1 or Tier 2, DNA sequence analysis, each variant exon
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|27439||Reason For Referral||42349-1|