West Nile Virus (WNV) Antibody, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Preferred test for the laboratory diagnosis of West Nile virus meningitis or encephalitis
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
West Nile Virus Ab, IgG and IgM,CSF
Mosquito borne encephalitis
West Nile virus (WNV)
WNV (West Nile virus)
Mosquito borne encephalitis
West Nile virus (WNV)
WNV (West Nile virus)
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Sterile vial
Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|CSF||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus (single-stranded RNA) that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects horses and humans. WNV was first isolated in 1937 from an infected person in the West Nile district of Uganda. Until the viral infection was recognized in 1999 in birds in New York City, WNV was found only in the Eastern hemisphere, with wide distribution in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe.(1-3) In 2002, a total of 3,389 human cases of WNV infection were reported from 37 states (794 cases in Illinois); 2,354 (69%) presented with meningoencephalitis, 704 (21%) had West Nile fever, and 331 (10%) had an unspecified illness.(2) Overall, the WNV epidemic in the United States was the largest arboviral meningoencephalitis outbreak documented in the Western hemisphere. In addition, 33 cases of probable WNV infection occurred among persons who had received blood components in the month before illness onset.(3)
Most people who are infected with WNV will not have any type of illness. It is estimated that about 20% of those who become infected will develop West Nile fever with mild symptoms, including fever, headache, myalgia, and occasionally a skin rash on the trunk of the body. About 1 of 150 WNV infections (<1%) result in meningitis or encephalitis. Case fatality rates among patients hospitalized during recent outbreaks have ranged from 4% to 14%. Advanced age is the most important risk factor for death, and patients older than 70 years of age are at particularly high risk.(1)
Laboratory diagnosis of WNV is best achieved by demonstration of specific IgG and IgM class antibodies in serum specimens from patients. By the 8th day of illness, most infected persons will have detectable serum IgM antibody to WNV; in most cases it will be detectable for at least 1 to 2 months after onset of illness, in some cases it will be detectable for 12 months or longer. By 3 weeks postinfection, virtually all infected persons should have developed serum IgG antibodies to WNV.
The specific identification of WNV by detection of IgM in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the recommended test to document central nervous system disease, but this test may be falsely negative in CSF collected <8 days after the onset of symptoms. PCR (LCWNV / West Nile Virus, Molecular Detection, PCR) can detect WNV RNA in specimens from patients with WNV infection when specific antibodies to the virus are not present. However, the likelihood of detection is relatively low as PCR sensitivity in CSF is approximately 55%, and in blood, about 10% in patients with known WNV infection.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Reference values apply to all ages.
A positive result is consistent with the acute phase of West Nile virus (WNV) meningitis or encephalitis. In the very early stages of acute WNV infection, IgM may be detectable in cerebrospinal fluid before it becomes detectable in serum.
A negative result may indicate the absence of disease. However, specimens drawn too early in the acute phase may be negative for IgM-specific antibodies to WNV. If WNV central nervous system (CNS) infection is suspected, a second specimen should be collected in 1 to 2 weeks and tested.
A positive result is consistent with CNS infection with WNV sometime in the past.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Test results should be used in conjunction with a clinical evaluation and other available diagnostic procedures.
The significance of negative test results in immunosuppressed patients is uncertain.
False-negative results due to competition by high levels of IgG, while theoretically possible, have not been observed.
West Nile virus antibody results for cerebrospinal (CSF) should be interpreted with caution. Complicating factors include low antibody levels found in CSF, passive transfer of antibody from blood, and contamination via bloody taps.
Cross-reactivity has been noted with some specimens containing IgM antibody to enteroviruses.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Petersen LR, Marafin AA: West Nile virus: a primer for the clinician. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:173-179
2. Petersen LR, Roehrig JT: West Nile virus: a reemerging global pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7(4):611-614
3. Brinton MA: The molecular biology of West Nile virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere. Ann Rev Microbiol 2002;56:371-402
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Provisional surveillance summary of the West Nile virus epidemic. United States, January-November 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51(50):1129-1133
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Investigations of West Nile virus infections in recipients of blood transfusions. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51(43):973-974
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Polystyrene microwells are coated with recombinant West Nile virus (WNV) antigen. Diluted specimens and controls are incubated in the wells to allow specific antibody present in the specimens to react with the antigen. Nonspecific reactants are removed by washing, and peroxidase-conjugated antihuman IgG is added and reacts with specific IgG. Excess conjugate is removed by washing. Enzyme substrate and chromogen are added, and the color is allowed to develop. After adding the Stop Reagent, the resultant color change is quantified by a spectrophotometric reading of optical density (OD). Specimen OD readings are compared with reference cut-off readings to determine results.(Package insert: Flavivirus [West Nile] ELISA IgG. Focus Technologies, Cypress, CA)
Polystyrene microwells are coated with the antihuman antibody specific for IgM (u-chain). Diluted specimens and controls are incubated in the wells, and IgM present in the specimen binds to the antihuman antibody (IgM specific) in the wells. Nonspecific reactants are removed by washing. WNV antigen is then added to the wells and incubated. If anti-WNV IgM is present in the specimen, the WNV antigen binds to the anti-WNV in the well. Unbound WNV antigen is then removed by washing the well. Mouse antiflavivirus conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) is then added to the wells and incubated. If WNV antigen has been retained in the well by the antiflavivirus in the specimen, the mouse antiflavivirus:HRPO binds to WNV antigen in the wells. Excess conjugate is removed by washing. Enzyme substrate and chromogen are added, and the color is allowed to develop. After adding the Stop Reagent, the resultant color change is quantified by a spectrophotometric reading of OD that is directly proportional to the amount of antigen-specific IgM present in the specimen. Specimen OD readings are compared with reference cutoff OD readings to determine results.(Package insert: Flavivirus [West Nile] IgM Capture ELISA. Focus Technologies, Cypress CA)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday; 9 a.m. (June through October)
Monday, Wednesday, Friday; 9 a.m. (November through May)
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been modified from the manufacturer’s instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|WNVGC||West Nile Virus Ab, IgG, CSF||41236-1|
|WNVMC||West Nile Virus Ab, IgM, CSF||29569-1|