NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Diagnosing insulinoma, when used in conjunction with proinsulin and C-peptide measurements
Management of diabetes mellitus
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Insulin Level, Serum
Insulin Level, Serum
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Preferred: Red top
Acceptable: Serum gel
Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial
Specimen Volume: 1 mL
2. Avoid hemolysis.
3. Label specimens with corresponding draw times.
Additional Information: If multiple specimens are drawn, send separate order for each specimen.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild reject; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross OK
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum||Frozen (preferred)||180 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. It regulates the uptake and utilization of glucose and is also involved in protein synthesis and triglyceride storage.
Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) is caused by insulin deficiency due to destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet (beta) cells. Type 2 diabetes (noninsulin dependent diabetes) is characterized by resistance to the action of insulin (insulin resistance).
Insulin levels may be increased in patients with pancreatic beta cell tumors (insulinoma).
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
During prolonged fasting, when the patient's glucose level is reduced to <40 mg/dL, elevated insulin level plus elevated levels of proinsulin and C-peptide suggest insulinoma.
Insulin levels generally decline in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
In the early stage of type 2 diabetes, insulin levels are either normal or elevated. In the late stage of type 2 diabetes, insulin levels decline.
In normal individuals, insulin levels parallel blood glucose levels.
To compare insulin and C-peptide concentrations (ie, insulin to C-peptide ratio):
-Convert insulin to pmol/L: insulin concentration in mcIU/mL x 6.945 = insulin concentration in pmol/L.
-Convert C-peptide to pmol/L: C-peptide concentration in ng/mL x 331 = C-peptide concentration in pmol/L.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) may interfere with the assay.
Patients on insulin therapy may develop anti-insulin antibodies. These antibodies may interfere in the assay system, causing inaccurate results. In such individuals, measurement of free insulin (FINS/81728 Insulin, Free, Serum) should be performed.
This assay has 100% cross-reactivity with recombinant human insulin (Novolin R and Novolin N). It does not recognize other commonly used analogues of injectable insulin (ie, insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin glargine).
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
Threatte GA, Henry JB: Carbohydrates. In Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 19th edition. Edited by JB Henry. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1996, pp 194-207
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
The Roche Cobas insulin method is a sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunoassay that employs a biotinylated monoclonal insulin-specific antibody and a monoclonal insulin-specific antibody. Insulin in the specimen reacts with both the biotinylated monoclonal insulin-specific antibody (mouse) and the monoclonal insulin-specific antibody (mouse) labeled with a ruthenium complex, forming a sandwich complex. Streptavidin-coated microparticles are added and the mixture is aspirated into the measuring cell where the microparticles are magnetically captured onto the surface of the electrode. Unbound substances are then removed with ProCell. Application of voltage to the electrode induces the chemiluminescent emission, which is then measured. (Package insert: Roche Insulin reagent, Roche Diagnostic Corp., Indianapolis, IN 2010-10, V1)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday 5 a.m. – 12 a.m., Saturday 6 a.m. – 6 p.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|