Arsenic, 24 Hour, Urine
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Preferred screening test for detection of arsenic exposure
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Arsenic, 24 Hr, U
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Collection Container/Tube: Clean, plastic urine container with no metal cap or glued insert
Submission Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube (Supply T068) or clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert
Specimen Volume: 10 mL
1. Collect urine for 24 hours.
2. No preservative.
3. Patient should not eat seafood for a 48-hour period prior to start of collection.
4. See Metals Analysis-Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.
5. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.
1. 24-Hour volume is required.
2. See Urine Preservatives in Special Instructions for multiple collections.
3. High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.
Urine Preservative Collection Options
50% Acetic Acid
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Urine||Refrigerated (preferred)||28 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Arsenic is perhaps the best known of the metal toxins, having gained notoriety from its extensive use by Renaissance nobility as an antisyphilitic agent and, paradoxically, as an antidote against acute arsenic poisoning. Even today, arsenic is still 1 of the more common toxicants found in insecticides, and leaching from bedrock to contaminate groundwater.
The toxicity of arsenic is due to 3 different mechanisms, 2 of them related to energy transfer. Arsenic covalently and avidly binds to dihydrolipoic acid, a necessary cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase. Absence of the cofactor inhibits the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A, the first step in gluconeogenesis. This results in loss of energy supply to anaerobic cells, the predominant mechanism of action of arsenic on neural cells that rely on anaerobic respiration for energy. Neuron cell destruction that occurs after long-term energy loss results in bilateral peripheral neuropathy.
Arsenic also competes with phosphate for binding to adenosine triphosphate during its synthesis by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation, causing formation of the lower energy adenosine diphosphate monoarsine. This results in loss of energy supply to aerobic cells. Cardiac cells are particularly sensitive to this form of energy loss; fatigue due to poor cardiac output is a common symptom of arsenic exposure.
Arsenic furthermore binds avidly with any hydrated sulfhydryl group on protein, distorting the 3-dimensional configuration of that protein, causing it to lose activity. Interaction of arsenic with epithelial cell protein at the sites of highest physiologic concentration, the small intestine and proximal tubule of the kidney, results in cellular degeneration. Epithelial cell erosion in the gastrointestinal tract and proximal tubule are characteristic of arsenic toxicity. Arsenic is also a know carcinogen, but the mechanism of this effect is not definitively known.
A wide range of signs and symptoms may be seen in acute arsenic poisoning including headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypotension, fever, hemolysis, seizures, and mental status changes. Symptoms of chronic poisoning, also called arseniasis, are mostly insidious and nonspecific. The gastrointestinal tract, skin, and central nervous system are usually involved. Nausea, epigastric pain, colic abdominal pain, diarrhea, and paresthesias of the hands and feet can occur.
Arsenic exists in a number of different forms; organic forms are nontoxic, inorganic forms are toxic. See ASFR/80375 Arsenic Fractionation, 24 Hour, Urine for details about arsenic forms.
Because arsenic is excreted predominantly by glomerular filtration, analysis for arsenic in urine is the best screening test to detect arsenic exposure.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Reference values apply to all ages.
Normally, humans consume 5 to 25 mcg of arsenic each day as part of their normal diet; therefore, normal urine arsenic output is <25 mcg/specimen. After a seafood meal (seafood contains a nontoxic, organic form of arsenic), the urine output of arsenic may increase to 300 mcg/specimen for 1 day, after which it will decline to <25 mcg/specimen.
Exposure to inorganic arsenic, the toxic form of arsenic, causes prolonged excretion of arsenic in the urine for many days.
Urine excretion rates >1,000 mcg/specimen indicate significant exposure. The highest level observed at Mayo Clinic was 450,000 mcg/specimen in a patient with severe symptoms of gastrointestinal distress, shallow breathing with classic "garlic breath," intermittent seizure activity, cardiac arrhythmias, and later onset of peripheral neuropathy.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Consumption of seafood before collection of a urine specimen for arsenic testing is likely to result in a report of an elevated concentration of arsenic found in the urine, which can be clinically misleading.
High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Fillol CC, Dor F, Labat L, et al: Urinary arsenic concentrations and speciation in residents living in an area with naturally contaminated soils. Sci Total Environ 2010 Feb 1;408(5):1190-1194
2. Caldwell K, Jones R, Verdon C, et al: Levels of urinary total and speciated arsenic in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2009 Jan;19(1):59-68
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
This assay is performed on an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Calibrating standards and blanks are diluted with an aqueous acidic diluent containing internal standard(s). Quality control specimens and patient samples are diluted in an identical manner. In turn, all diluted blanks, calibrating standards, quality control specimens, and patient specimens are aspirated into a pneumatic nebulizer and the resulting aerosol directed to the hot plasma discharge by a flow of argon. In the annular plasma the aerosol is vaporized, atomized, then ionized. The ionized gases plus neutral species formed in the annular plasma space are aspirated from the plasma through an orifice into a quadrapole mass spectrometer. The mass range from 1 to 263 amu is rapidly scanned multiple times and ion counts tabulated for each mass of interest. Instrument response is defined by the linear relationship of analyte concentration vs. ion count ratio (analyte ion count/internal standard ion count). Analyte concentrations are derived by reading the ion count ratio for each mass of interest and determining the concentration from the response line. (Nixon DE, Moyer TP: Routine clinical determination of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and thallium in urine and whole blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta B 1996;51:13-25)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday; 3 p.m. – 9 p.m.; Saturday; 8 a.m. – 3 p.m./Continuously
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|31086||Arsenic, 24 Hr, U||5587-1|