NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Detecting zinc deficiency
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Dynamic Reaction Cell-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Zn (Zinc) Serum
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Collection Container/Tube: Plain, royal blue-top Vacutainer plastic trace element blood collection tube, catalog #368380 (Supply T184)
Submission Container/Tube: 7-mL Mayo metal-free, screw-capped, polypropylene vial (Supply T173)
Specimen Volume: 0.8 mL
1. Allow the specimen to clot for 30 minutes; then centrifuge the specimen to separate serum from the cellular fraction. Serum must be removed from cellular fraction within 4 hours of specimen collection. Avoid hemolysis.
2. Remove the stopper. Carefully pour specimen into Mayo metal-free, polypropylene vial, avoiding transfer of the cellular components of blood. Do not insert a pipet into the serum to accomplish transfer, and do not ream the specimen with a wooden stick to assist with serum transfer.
3. See Metals Analysis-Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.
Additional Information: High concentrations of gadolinium, iodine, and barium are known to interfere with most metals tests. If gadolinium-, iodine-, or barium-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild reject; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross reject
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Zinc is an essential element; it is a critical cofactor for carbonic anhydrase, alkaline phosphatase, RNA and DNA polymerases, alcohol dehydrogenase, and many other physiologically important proteins. The peptidases, kinases, and phosphorylases are most sensitive to zinc depletion. Zinc is a key element required for active wound healing.
Zinc depletion occurs either because it is not absorbed from the diet (excess copper or iron interfere with absorption) or it is lost after absorption. Dietary deficiency may be due to absence (parenteral nutrition) or because the zinc in the diet is bound to phytate (fiber) and not available for absorption. Excess copper and iron in the diet (eg, iron supplements) interfere with zinc uptake. Once absorbed, the most common route of loss is via exudates from open wounds or gastrointestinal loss. Zinc depletion occurs in burn patients who lose zinc in the exudates from their burn sites. Hepatic cirrhosis causes excess loss of zinc by enhancing renal excretion. Other diseases that cause low serum zinc are ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, regional enteritis, sprue, intestinal bypass, neoplastic disease, and increased catabolism induced by anabolic steroids. The conditions of anorexia and starvation also result in low zinc levels.
Zinc excess is not of major clinical concern. The popular American habit of taking megavitamins (containing huge doses of zinc) produces no direct toxicity problems. Much of this zinc passes through the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted in the feces. The excess fraction that is absorbed is excreted in the urine. The only known effect of excessive zinc ingestion relates to the fact that zinc interferes with copper absorption, which can lead to hypocupremia.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
0-10 years: 0.60-1.20 mcg/mL
> or =11 years: 0.66-1.10 mcg/mL
Normal serum zinc is 0.66 to 1.10 mcg/mL.
Burn patients with acrodermatitis may have zinc as low as 0.4 mcg/mL; these patients respond quickly to zinc supplementation.
Elevated serum zinc is of minimal clinical interest.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Hemolyzed specimens will cause false elevation of serum zinc levels.
It is essential that the specimen is collected following the trace metals collection procedure (see Metals Analysis-Collection and Transport in Special Instructions.)
High concentrations of gadolinium, iodine, and barium are known to interfere with most metals tests. If gadolinium, iodine, or barium-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Tucker SB, Schroeter AL, Brown PW Jr, McCall JT: Acquired zinc deficiency: cutaneous manifestations typical of acrodermatitis enteropathica. JAMA 1976;235:2399-2402
2. Skelton JA, Havens PL, Werlin SL. Nutrient deficiencies in tube-fed children. Clin Pediatr 2006;45(1):37-41
3. Zorbas YG, Kakuris KK, Neofitov IA, Afoninos NI: Zinc utilization in zinc-supplemented and -unsupplemented healthy subjects during and after prolonged hypokinesis. Tr Elem Electro 2008;25:60-68
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
This assay is performed on an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer in dynamic reaction cell mode. Calibrating standards and blanks are diluted with an aqueous acidic diluent containing internal standard(s). Quality control specimens and patient samples are diluted in an identical manner. In turn, all diluted blanks, calibrating standards, quality control specimens, and patient specimens are aspirated into a pneumatic nebulizer and the resulting aerosol directed to the hot plasma discharge by a flow of argon. In the annular plasma the aerosol is vaporized, atomized, then ionized. The ionized gases plus neutral species formed in the annular plasma space are aspirated from the plasma through an orifice into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mass range from 1 to 263 amu is rapidly scanned multiple times and ion counts tabulated for each mass of interest. Instrument response is defined by the linear relationship of analyte concentration vs. ion count ratio (analyte ion count/internal standard ion count). Analyte concentrations are derived by reading the ion count ratio for each mass of interest and determining the concentration from the response line.(Hanley MM, Murray DL, Moyer TP, et al: Selenium, Copper and Zinc Serum: Attenuation of Interferences by Collision/Reaction Cell ICP-MS [Abstract WP22]. 2012 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry, Tucson, Arizona, January 9-14, 2012)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday; 8 a.m. - 6 p.m.; Saturday; 8 a.m. - 3 p.m./Continuously
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|