Pseudocholinesterase, Total, Serum
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Monitoring exposure to organophosphorus insecticides
Monitoring patients with liver disease, particularly those undergoing liver transplantation
Identifying patients who are homozygous or heterozygous for an atypical gene and have low levels of pseudocholinesterase
Photometric, Acetylthiocholine Substrate
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Pseudocholinesterase, Total, S
Cholinesterase (Pseudo), Total
Serum Cholinesterase (Pseudochol)
Serum Cholinesterase (Pseudochol)
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Preferred: Serum gel
Acceptable: Red top
Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL
1. Patient's age and sex are required.
2. For cases of prolonged apnea following surgery, wait 24 hours before obtaining specimen.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild reject; Gross reject
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum||Refrigerated (preferred)||7 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Serum cholinesterase, often called pseudocholinesterase (PCHE), is distinguished from acetylcholinesterase or "true cholinesterase," by both location and substrate.
Acetylcholinesterase is found in erythrocytes, in the lungs and spleen, in nerve endings, and in the gray matter of the brain. It is responsible for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine released at the nerve endings to mediate transmission of the neural impulse across the synapse.
PCHE, the serum enzyme, is also found in liver, pancreas, heart, and white matter. Its biological role is unknown.
The organophosphorus-containing insecticides are potent inhibitors of the true cholinesterase and also cause depression of PCHE. Low values of PCHE are also found in patients with liver disease. In general, patients with advanced cirrhosis and carcinoma with metastases will show a 50% to 70% decrease. Essentially normal values are seen in chronic hepatitis, mild cirrhosis, and obstructive jaundice.
PCHE metabolizes the muscle relaxants succinylcholine and mivacurium, and therefore, alterations in PCHE will influence the physiologic effect of these drugs.
In normal individuals (approximately 94% of the population) certain drugs and other agents, such as dibucaine and fluoride, will almost completely inhibit the PCHE activity.
A small number of individuals (<1% of the population) have been shown to have genetic variants of the enzyme, and cannot metabolize the muscle relaxants succinylcholine and mivacurium and experience prolonged apnea. These individuals generally have low levels of PCHE, which is not inhibited by dibucaine or fluoride. These individuals are either homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for an atypical gene(s) controlling PCHE.
Simple heterozygotes have also been identified who show intermediate enzyme values and inhibition.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
> or =18 years: 3,100-6,500 U/L
18-49 years: 1,800-6,600 U/L
> or =50 years: 2,550-6,800 U/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are <18 years of age.
Patients with normal pseudocholinesterase (PCHE) activity show 70% to 90% inhibition by dibucaine, while patients homozygous for the abnormal allele show little or no inhibition (0%-20%) and usually low levels of enzyme.
Heterozygous patients have intermediate PCHE levels and response to inhibitors.
The atypical gene is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. In a positive patient, family members should be tested.
Decreasing or low levels may indicate exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, as long as liver disease and an abnormal allele have been ruled out.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
There are some homozygous and heterozygous individuals who are sensitive to succinylcholine although their total pseudocholinesterase (PCHE) values are normal. A dibucaine inhibition test is necessary to confirm the presence of the abnormal allele in these individuals.
Not useful for the differential diagnosis of jaundice.
Certain drugs and anesthetic agents may inhibit PCHE activity. Therefore, it is recommended that blood specimens be drawn 24 to 48 hours post-operatively on those patients who have experienced prolonged apnea after surgery.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. McQueen MJ: Clinical and analytical consideration in the utilization of cholinesterase measurements. Clin Chim Acta 1995;237:91-105
2. Moss DW, Henderson R: Enzymes. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Second edition. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1994, pp 877-883
3. Nelson TC, Burritt MF: Pesticide poisoning, succinylcholine-induced apnea, and pseudocholinesterase. Mayo Clin Proc 1995;61:750-752
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
The substrate, acetylthiocholine, is cleaved by pseudocholinesterase (PCHE) into acetate and thiocholine. The thiocholine reacts with dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid (Ellman's reagent) to form the yellow-colored 5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid which is monitored at 405 nm. The rate of color formation is directly proportional to the PCHE activity.(McQueen MJ: Clinical and analytical consideration in the utilization of cholinesterase measurements. Clin Chim Acta 1995;237:91-105)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Sunday; Continuously
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|PCHES||Pseudocholinesterase, Total, S||2098-2|