Citrate Excretion, Pediatric, Random, Urine
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Diagnosing risk factors for patients with calcium kidney stones.
Monitoring results of therapy in patients with calcium stones or renal tubular acidosis.
A timed 24-hour urine collection is the preferred specimen for measuring and interpreting this urinary analyte. Random collections normalized to urinary creatinine may be of some clinical use in patients who cannot collect a 24-hour specimen, typically small children. Therefore, this random test is offered for children <16 years old.
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Citrate Excretion, Peds, Random, U
Citric Acid, Urine
Urinary Citrate Excretion
Urinary Citrate Excretion
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Plastic, 6-mL tube (Supply T465)
Specimen Volume: 5 mL
1. Collect a random urine specimen.
2. No preservative.
1. A timed 24-hour collection is the preferred specimen for measuring and interpreting this urinary analyte. Random collections normalized to urinary creatinine may be of some clinical use in patients who cannot collect a 24-hour specimen, typically small children. Therefore, this random test is offered for children <16 years old.
2. Any drug that causes alkalemia or acidemia may be expected to alter citrate excretion and should be avoided, if possible.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Urine||Refrigerated (preferred)||7 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Urinary citrate is a major inhibitor of kidney stone formation due in part to binding of calcium in urine. Low urine citrate levels are considered a risk for kidney stone formation. Several metabolic disorders are associated with low urine citrate. Any condition which lowers renal tubular pH or intracellular pH may decrease citrate (eg, metabolic acidosis, increased acid ingestion, hypokalemia, or hypomagnesemia).
Low urinary citrate is subject to therapy by correcting acidosis, hypokalemia, or hypomagnesemia by altering diet or using drugs such as citrate and potassium.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
No established reference values
A low value represents a potential risk for kidney stone formation/growth. Patients with low urinary citrate, and new or growing stone formation may benefit from adjustments in therapy known to increase urinary citrate excretion.
Very low levels suggest investigation for the possible diagnosis of metabolic acidosis (eg, renal tubular acidosis).
For children ages 5 to 18, a ratio of <0.176 mg citrate/ mg creatinine is below the 5% reference range and considered low.(1)
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Drugs that lower systemic pH, potassium, and/or magnesium lower urine citrate and are to be avoided in patients with tendency to calcium stones. Conversely, drugs that raise systemic pH, potassium, and/or magnesium may raise urine citrate and should be considered in treating patients or interpreting results.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Srivastava T, Winston MJ, Auron A et al: Urine calcium/citrate ratio in children with hypercalciuric stones. Pediatr Res 2009;66:85-90
2. Hosking DH, Wilson JW, Liedtke RR, et al: The urinary excretion of citrate in normal persons and patients with idiopathic calcium urolithiasis (abstract). Urol Res 1984;12:26
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Citric acid in the presence of Zn(++) at pH 8.2 is catalyzed to oxaloacetate by the enzyme, citrate lyase. Oxaloacetate in the presence of malate dehydrogenase and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is reduced to malate (II). By measuring the disappearance of the light-absorbing NADH, the citric acid concentration in the reaction mixture can be determined. (Nielsen TT: A method for enzymatic determination of citrate in serum and urine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:513-519)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Saturday; 8 a.m.-4 p.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|CITR1||Citrate Concentration, Peds, Random, U||2128-7|