Alpha-1-Microglobulin, Random, Urine
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Assessment of renal tubular injury or dysfunction
Screening for tubular abnormalities
Detecting chronic asymptomatic renal tubular dysfunction
Profile Information A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.
|Test ID||Reporting Name||Available Separately||Always Performed|
|CTUR||Creatinine Conc||Yes, (order CTU)||Yes|
|AIMR||Alpha-1-Microglobulin, Random, U||No||Yes|
CTUR/24017: Enzymatic Colorimetric Assay
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Alpha-1-Microglobulin, Random, U
Protein Human Complex (HC)
Protein Human Complex (HC)
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Plastic, 6-mL tube (Supply T465)
Specimen Volume: 5 mL
1. Collect a random urine specimen.
2. No preservative.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Urine||Refrigerated (preferred)||7 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Alpha-1-microglobulin is a low-molecular-weight protein of 26 kDa and a member of the lipocalin protein superfamily.(1) It is synthesized in the liver, freely filtered by glomeruli, and reabsorbed by renal proximal tubules cells where it is catabolized.(1) Due to extensive tubular reabsorption, under normal conditions very little filtered alpha-1-microglobulin appears in the final excreted urine. Therefore, an increase in the urinary concentration of alpha-1-microglobulin indicates proximal tubule injury and/or impaired proximal tubular function.
Elevated excretion rates can indicate tubular damage associated with renal tubulointerstitial nephritis or tubular toxicity from heavy metal or nephrotoxic drug exposure. Glomerulonephropathies and renal vasculopathies also are often associated with coexisting tubular injury and so may result in elevated urinary alpha-1-microglobulin excretion. Elevated alpha-1-microglobulin in patients with urinary tract infections may indicate renal involvement (pyelonephritis). Measurement of urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein, another low-molecular-weight protein, is an alternative to the measurement of alpha-1-microglobulin. To date, there are no convincing studies to indicate that 1 test has better clinical utility than the other.
Urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin can be determined from either a 24-hour collection or from a random urine collection. The 24-hour collection is traditionally considered the gold standard. For random or spot collections, the concentration of alpha-1-microglobulin is divided by the urinary creatinine concentration. This corrected value adjusts alpha-1-microglobulin for variabilities in urine concentration.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
<50 years: <13 mg/g creatinine
> or =50 years: <20 mg/g creatinine
Alpha-1-microglobulin above the reference values may indicate a proximal tubular dysfunction. As suggested in the literature, 7 mg/g creatinine is an upper reference limit for pediatric patients of 1 month to 15 years of age.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Since this is a nephelometric assay, turbidity and particles (eg, cells, crystals) in the sample can interfere with the test. Therefore, all urine specimens should be centrifuged at ambient temperature prior to assay.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Akerstrom B, Logdberg L, Berggard T, et al: Alpha-1-microglobulin: a yellow-brown lipocalin. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2000 Oct 18;1482(1-2):172-184
2. Hjorth L, Helin I, Grubb A: Age-related reference limits for urine levels of albumin, orosomucoid, immunoglobulin G and protein HC in children. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2000 Feb;60(1):65-73
3. Yu H, Yanagisawa Y, Forbes M, et al: Alpha-1-microglobulin: an indicator protein for renal tubular function. J Clin Pathol 1983 Mar;36(3):253-259
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Creatinine is performed by the enzymatic method, which is based on the determination of sarcosine from creatinine with the aid of creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated hydrogen peroxide is measured via a modified Trinder reaction using a colorimetric indicator. Optimization of the buffer system and the colorimetric indicator enables the creatinine concentration to be quantified both precisely and specifically. (Package insert: Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis IN, 2004)
In an immunochemical reaction, alpha-1-microglobulin present in the urine sample forms immune complexes with anti-alpha-1-microglobulin-specific antibodies. These complexes scatter a beam of light passed through the sample. The intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the concentration of alpha-1-microglobulin in the sample. The result is evaluated by comparison with a standard of known concentration. (Package insert: Dade Behring N Antisera to Human Alpha-1-microglobulin)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Varies; 8 a.m.-4 p.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|A1M_U||Alpha-1-Microglobulin, Random, U||46723-3|