Aspergillus (Galactomannan) Antigen, Serum
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
An aid in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and assessing response to therapy
Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Aspergillus Ag, S
Platelia Aspergillus Ag
Platelia Aspergillus Ag
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Preferred: Serum gel
Acceptable: Red top
Specimen Volume: 1.5 mL
1. Avoid exposure of specimen to atmosphere.
2. Send specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.
Forms: If not ordering electronically, submit a General Request Form (Supply T239) with the specimen.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a severe infection that occurs in patients with prolonged neutropenia, following transplantation or in conjunction with aggressive immunosuppressive regimens (eg, prolonged corticosteroid usage, chemotherapy). The incidence of IA is reported to vary from 5% to 20% depending on the patient population. IA has an extremely high mortality rate of 50% to 80% due in part to the rapid progression of the infection (ie, 1-2 weeks from onset to death). Approximately 30% of cases remain undiagnosed and untreated at death.
Definitive diagnosis of IA requires histopathological evidence of deep-tissue invasion or a positive culture. However, this evidence is often difficult to obtain due to the critically ill nature of the patient and the fact that severe thrombocytopenia often precludes the use of invasive procedures to obtain a quality specimen. The sensitivity of culture in this setting also is low, reportedly ranging from 30% to 60% for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Accordingly, the diagnosis is often based on nonspecific clinical symptoms (unexplained fever, cough, chest pain, dyspnea) in conjunction with radiologic evidence (computed tomography [CT] scan); and definitive diagnosis is often not established before fungal proliferation becomes overwhelming and refractory to therapy.
Recently, a serologic assay was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the detection of galactomannan, a molecule found in the cell wall of Aspergillus species. Serum galactomannan can often be detected a mean of 7 to 14 days before other diagnostic clues become apparent, and monitoring of galactomannan can potentially allow initiation of preemptive antifungal therapy before life-threatening infection occurs.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
A positive result supports a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Positive results should be considered in conjunction with other diagnostic procedures, such as microbiologic culture, histological examination of biopsy specimens, and radiographic evidence. See Cautions.
A negative result does not rule out the diagnosis of IA. Repeat testing is recommended if the result is negative but IA is suspected. Patients at risk of IA should have a baseline serum tested and should be monitored twice a week for increasing galactomannan antigen levels.
Galactomannan antigen levels may be useful in the assessment of therapeutic response. Antigen levels decline in response to antimicrobial therapy.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
False-positive results are reported to occur at rates of 8% to 14% with this assay. For all positive patients, it is recommended that a new aliquot of the same specimen be repeated, as well as collection of a new specimen from the patient for follow-up testing. Two or more consecutive positive results should be obtained from separately drawn specimens before the patient is considered to have a positive Aspergillus antigen test.
Numerous foods (pasta, rice, etc.) contain galactomannan. It is thought that damage to the gut wall by cytotoxic therapy, irradiation, or graft-versus-host disease enables translocation of the galactomannan from the gut lumen into the blood and may be partially responsible for the high false-positive rate of this assay.
Other genera of fungi such as Penicillium and Paecilomyces have shown reactivity with the rat EBA-2 monoclonal antibody used in the assay. These species are rarely implicated in invasive fungal disease. Cross reactivity with Alternaria species also has been reported.
Semisynthetic antibiotics such as piperacillin, amoxicillin, and augmentin, which are based on natural compounds derived from the genus Penicillium, have been demonstrated to cross-react with the rat EBA-2 monoclonal antibody used in the assay.
The specificity of the assay for Aspergillus species cannot exclude the involvement of other fungal pathogens with similar clinical presentations such as Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucorales.
The performance of the assay has not been evaluated with neonate serum specimens or for use with plasma or other specimen types such as urine or cerebrospinal fluid.
The assay may exhibit reduced detection of galactomannan in patients with chronic granulomatous disease and Job's syndrome.
The concomitant use of antifungal therapy in some patients with invasive aspergillosis may result in reduced sensitivity of the assay.
False-positive galactomannan results are possible in patients receiving PLASMA-LYTE for intravenous hydration or if PLASMA-LYTE is used for bronchoalveolar lavage.
Specimens containing Histoplasma antigen may cross-react in the Aspergillus galactomannan assay.
In clinical studies submitted for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approval process, the sensitivity of the test was reported to be 81% for proven/provable invasive aspergillosis (N=31 patients), and the specificity was 89% (N=148 patients). The positive and negative predictive values were reported as 68% and 96% respectively, based on an average prevalence of 14% in the study population. In a low-prevalence population (5%), the positive predictive value decreases to 31%; the negative predictive value remains at 96%.(Package insert: Platelia Aspergillus EIA, Bio-Rad, Redmond, WA, 6/2003)
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Maertens J, Verhaegen J, Lagrou K, et al: Screening for circulating galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients: a prospective evaluation. Blood 2001 March 15;97(6):1604-1610
2. Pinel C, Fricker-Hidalgo H, Lebeau B, et al: Detection of circulating Aspergillus fumigatus galactomannan: value and limits of the Platelia test for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 2003 May;41(5):2184-2186
3. Swanink CM, Meis JF, Rijs AJ, et al: Specificity of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan. J Clin Microbiol 1997 Jan;35(1):257-260
4. Ansorg R, van den Boom R, Rath P: Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in foods and antibiotics. Mycoses 1997 Dec;40(9-10):353-357
5. Connolly P, Durkin M, Wheat LJ, et al: Rapid diagnosis of systemic and invasive mycoses. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter 2007 Jan;29(1):1-5
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
The Platelia Aspergillus EIA is a 1-stage immunoenzymatic sandwich microplate assay which detects galactomannan in human serum. The assay uses the rat monoclonal antibody EBA-2, which is directed against Aspergillus galactomannan. The monoclonal antibody is used 1) to coat the wells of the microplate and bind the antigen and 2) as the detector antibody in the conjugate reagent (peroxidase-linked monoclonal antibody).
Serum samples are heat-treated in the presence of EDTA in order to dissociate immune complexes and to precipitate serum proteins that could possibly interfere with the test. The treated serum samples and conjugate are added to the wells coated with the monoclonal antibody and incubated. A monoclonal antibody-galactomannan-monoclonal antibody/peroxidase complex is formed in the presence of Aspergillus antigen.
The strips are washed to remove any unbound material, and the substrate solution is added, which will react with the complex bound to the well to form a blue color reaction. The enzyme reaction is stopped by the addition of acid, which changes the blue color to yellow. The optical absorbance of specimens and controls is determined with a spectrophotometer set at 450 nm and 620/630 nm wavelengths.
Negative, cutoff (low-positive), and high-positive controls are analyzed each time the assay is performed. The presence or absence of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the test sample is determined by calculation of an index for the specimen. The index is the optical density (OD) value of the specimen divided by the mean OD of wells containing the cutoff control serum (low-positive control).(Package insert: Platelia Aspergillus EIA, Bio-Rad, Redmond, WA, 6/2003)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.; Sunday 8:00 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|84356||Aspergillus Ag, S||44357-2|