11-nor-Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-9-Carboxylic Acid (Carboxy-THC), Meconium
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Detection of in utero drug exposure up to 5 months before birth
Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Carboxy-THC Confirmation, M
J (Jane) (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Mary Jane (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
J (Jane) (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Mary Jane (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Chain-of-custody is recommended for this test. Chain-of-Custody Meconium Kit (Supply T653) is available upon request.
Container/Tube: Stool container (Supply T288)
Specimen Volume: 5 g (approximately 1 tablespoon)
Collection Instructions: Collect entire random meconium specimen.
1. For chain-of-custody information, see Chain-of-Custody Meconium Kit (Supply T653).
2. Specimen that arrives with a broken seal does not meet the chain-of-custody requirements.
3. The laboratory recommends sending chain-of-custody specimens by overnight shipment.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
1 g (approximately 0.5 teaspoon)
Grossly bloody reject; Pink OK
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Meconium||Frozen (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Marijuana and other psychoactive products obtained from the plant Cannabis sativa are the most widely used illicit drugs in the world.(1) Marijuana has unique behavioral effects that include feelings of euphoria and relaxation, altered time perception, impaired learning and memory, lack of concentration, and mood changes (eg, panic reactions and paranoia).
Cannabis sativa produces numerous compounds collectively known as cannabinoids including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the most prevalent and produces most of the characteristic pharmacological effects of smoked marijuana.(2) THC undergoes rapid hydroxylation by the cytochrome (CYP) enzyme system to form the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC. Subsequent oxidation of 11-hydroxy-THC produces the inactive metabolite 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH; carboxy-THC). THC-COOH and its glucuronide conjugate have been identified as the major end-products of metabolism. THC is highly lipid soluble, resulting in its concentration and prolonged retention in fat tissue.(3)
Cannabinoids cross the placenta, but a dose-response relationship or correlation has not been established between the amount of marijuana use in pregnancy and the levels of cannabinoids found in meconium, the first fecal matter passed by the neonate.(4,5) The disposition of drug in meconium is not well understood. The proposed mechanism is that the fetus excretes drug into bile and amniotic fluid. Drug accumulates in meconium either by direct deposition from bile or through swallowing amniotic fluid.(5) The first evidence of Meconium in the fetal intestine appears at approximately the 10th to 12th week of gestation, and slowly moves into the colon by the 16th week of gestation.(6) Therefore, the presence of drugs in meconium has been proposed to be indicative of in utero drug exposure up to 5 months before birth , a longer historical measure than is possible by urinalysis.(5)
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Positives are reported with a quantitative LC-MS/MS result.
Tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (marijuana metabolite) by LC-MS/MS: >10 ng/g
The presence of 11-nor-delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid > or =10 ng/g is indicative of in utero drug exposure up to 5 months before birth.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Since the evidence of illicit drug use during pregnancy can be cause for separating the baby from the mother, a kit is available that includes all the materials necessary to complete chain-of-custody to ensure that the test results are appropriate for legal proceedings.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Huestis MA: Marijuana. In Principles of Forensic Toxicology. Second edition. Edited by B Levine. Washington DC, AACC Press, 2003 pp 229-264
2. O'Brein CP: Drug addiction and drug abuse. In Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th edition. Edited by LL Burton, JS Lazo, KL Parker. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, 2006. Available at URL: www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=941547
3. Baselt RC: Tetrahydrocannabinol. In Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemical in Man. Edited by RC Baselt. Foster City, CA, Biomedical Publications, 2008:1513-1518
4. Ostrea EM Jr, Knapop DK, Tannenbaum L, et al: Estimates of illicit drug use during pregnancy by maternal interview, hair analysis, and meconium analysis. J Pediatr 2001;138:344-348
5. Ostrea EM Jr, Brady MJ, Parks PM, et al: Drug screening of meconium in infants of drug-dependent mothers: an alternative to urine testing. J Pediatr 1989;115:474-477
6. Ahanya SN, Lakshmanan J, Morgan BL, Ross MG: Meconium passage in utero: mechanisms, consequences, and management. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005;60:45-56
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Meconium is mixed with internal standard and broken down with acetic acid. The sample is then extracted with methanol and further processed by solid-phase extraction. The extract is analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.(Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday, Sunday; Varies
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|31877||Chain of Custody||In Process|