C2 Complement, Antigen, Serum
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Diagnosis of C2 deficiency
Investigation of a patient with an absent total complement (CH) level
Radial Immunodiffusion-Binding Site
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
C2 Complement, Antigen, S
Second Component of Complement
Second Component of Complement
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Collection Container/Tube: Red top
Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial
Specimen Volume: 1 mL
Collection Instructions: Fasting.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum Red||Frozen (preferred)||60 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Complement proteins are components of the innate immune system. There are 3 pathways to complement activation: 1) the classic pathway, 2) the alternative (or properdin) pathway, and 3) the lectin activation (mannan-binding protein, [MBP]) pathway. The classic pathway of the complement system is composed of a series of proteins that are activated in response to the presence of immune complexes. The activation process results in the generation of peptides that are chemotactic for neutrophils and that bind to immune complexes and complement receptors. The end result of the complement activation cascade is the formation of the lytic membrane attack complex.
The absence of early components (C1-C4) of the complement cascade results in the inability of immune complexes to activate the cascade. Patients with deficiencies of the early complement proteins are unable to clear immune complexes or to generate lytic activity. These patients have increased susceptibility to infections with encapsulated microorganisms. They may also have symptoms that suggest autoimmune disease and complement deficiency may be an etiologic factor in the development of autoimmune disease.
Although rare, C2 deficiency is the most common inherited complement deficiency. Homozygous C2 deficiency has an estimated prevalence ranging from 1:10,000 to 1:40,000 (the prevalence of heterozygotes is 1:100 to 1:50). Half of the homozygous patients are clinically normal. However, discoid lupus erythematosus or systemic lupus erythematousus (SLE) occur in approximately 1/3 of patients with homozygous C2 deficiency. Patients with SLE and a C2 deficiency frequently have a normal anti-ds DNA titer. Clinically, many have lupus-like skin lesions and photosensitivity, but immunofluorescence studies may fail to demonstrate immunoglobulin or complement along the epidermal-dermal junction. Other diseases reported to be associated with C2 deficiency include dermatomyositis, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, atrophodema, cold urticaria, inflammatory bowel disease, and recurrent infections.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Low levels of complement may be due to inherited deficiencies, acquired deficiencies, or due to complement consumption (eg, as a consequence of infectious or autoimmune processes).
Absent C2 levels in the presence of normal C3 and C4 values are consistent with a C2 deficiency. Low C2 levels in the presence of low C3 and C4 values are consistent with a complement-consumptive process. Low C2 and C4 values in the presence of normal values for C3 is suggestive of C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
The total complement assay (see COM/8167 Complement, Total, Serum) should be used as a screen for suspected complement deficiencies before ordering individual complement component assays. A deficiency of an individual component of the complement cascade will result in an undetectable CH(50) level.
Complement levels also can be detected by functional assays. For most of the complement proteins, a small number of cases have been described in which the protein is present but is non functional. These rare cases require a functional assay to detect the deficiency.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Gaither TA, Frank MM: Complement. In Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 17th edition. Edited by JB Henry. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1984, pp 879-892
2. O'Neil KM: Complement deficiency. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2000;19:83-108
3. Frank MM: Complement deficiencies. Pediatr Clin North Am 2000;47:1339-1354
4. Buckley D, Barnes L: Childhood subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with homozygous complement 2 deficiency. Pediatr Dermatol 1995;12:327-330
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
C2 antigen is measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID). Antiserum to C2 is embedded in a layer of agarose, wells are punched into the agarose gel, and the patient specimens and standards are allowed to diffuse into the gel and form a precipitin ring. The diameter of the ring is proportional to the antigen (C2) concentration. The RID reagent set is from The Binding Site Ltd. (Mancini G, Carbonara AO, Heremans JF: Immunochemical quantitation of antigens by single radial immunodiffusion. Immunochemistry, 1965;2:235)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Wednesday, Friday; 1 p.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test uses a reagent or kit labeled by the manufacturer as Research Use Only. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|84141||C2 Complement, Antigen, S||4484-2|