Spotted Fever Group Antibody, IgG and IgM, Serum
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
An aid in the diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infections
Testing Algorithm Delineates situation(s) when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.
See Acute Tick-Borne Disease Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Spotted Fever Group Ab, IgG, IgM, S
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Preferred: Red top
Acceptable: Serum gel
Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Species of Rickettsia are small (0.3-0.5 mcm x 1-2 mcm) obligately intracellular bacteria (Proteobacteria). They have a gram-negative cell wall structure. Rickettsia are found in arthropod hosts for at least part of their life cycle.
Rickettsial infections in the United States are caused by 2 major groups within the genus Rickettsia: spotted fever group and typhus fever group. The spotted fever group includes Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), Rickettsia akari, Rickettsia conorii (Boutonneuse fever), Rickettsia australis (Queensland tick typhus), and Rickettsia sibirica (North Asian tick typhus). The typhus fever group includes Rickettsia typhi (murine typhus; endemic typhus), and Rickettsia prowazekii (epidemic typhus).
Rickettsia rickettsiae is the most common rickettsial species encountered in the United States and is transmitted through a tick vector (Dermacentor species or, less commonly, Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Following a 2- to 14-day incubation period, patients most commonly present with fever, chills, and myalgia. A maculopapular rash typically appears 2 to 5 days after fever onset, though approximately 10% of patients will not develop a rash. Antibodies to the spotted fever group agents are detectable within 7 to 10 days after illness onset. Demonstration of either 1) seroconversion or 2) a 4-fold change in IgG specific antibody titers in acute and convalescent serum samples is consistent with acute or ongoing disease.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
This test detects reactivity to the group-specific rickettsia. For example, antibody reactivity to the Rickettsia rickettsii will also react with other organisms within the spotted fever group.
> or =1:256:
-Serum end point titers of > or =1:256 are considered presumptive evidence of recent or current infection by organisms of appropriate rickettsial antigen group.
<1:256 and > or =1:64:
-Single serum end point titers > or =1:64 and <1:256 are suggestive of infection at an undetermined time and may indicate either past infection or early response to a recent rickettsial infection.
-A 4-fold or greater increase in IgG titer between 2 serum specimens drawn 1 to 2 weeks apart and tested in parallel is considered presumptive evidence of a recent or current infection.
-In patients infected with organisms within the rickettsial groups, IgG antibody is generally detectable within 1 to 2 weeks of onset of symptoms, peaking within 1 to 2 months, and declining thereafter. Following prompt antimicrobial treatment, titers generally decline below detectable levels within 8 to 11 months. With relapse, prior immunization, or delayed antibiotic treatment, IgG levels may remain elevated for more than a year post-onset.
> or =1:64:
-Titers of > or =1:64 are considered presumptive evidence of recent or current infection by organisms of appropriate rickettsial antigen group.
-Titers <1:64 suggest that the patient does not have an acute rickettsial infection.
-IgM class antibody is transiently detected within 1 to 2 weeks of onset of symptoms, usually declining rapidly within 3 months following prompt antibiotic treatment. These levels will also be elevated for an extended period with relapse, prior immunization, or delayed antibiotic treatment.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Cross-reactivity within the spotted fever group precludes the speciation of the infecting rickettsia by this procedure. Sera reactive with Rickettsia rickettsii must be termed "spotted fever group-positive." Spotted fever and typhus fever intragroup cross-reactivity is weak: cross-reactive titers are typically at least 16-fold lower than group-specific titers.
Antibody is variably absent for 1 to 2 weeks after onset of symptoms and an initial negative titer should not be used to exclude the diagnosis of rickettsial disease. A second serum specimen should be drawn 1 to 2 weeks later to establish the diagnosis in such patients.
IgM titers must be interpreted with caution, especially in the absence of IgG. Cases should be further evaluated clinically or serologically, by testing acute and convalescent serum in parallel to demonstrate a 4-fold or greater change in IgG or IgM titer.
Diagnosis of recent infection based on a single elevated IgG titer is complicated by the slow decline of antibody titer from past infection in many individuals. Titers may remain elevated for longer than 12 months, especially where antibiotic treatment was delayed or prior immunization was involved.
Some patients may maintain a long-term IgM titer, with or without IgG. It is important to check the IgM titer 1 to 2 weeks following testing of an acute specimen.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Walker DH, Bouyer DH: Rickettsia. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Eighth edition. Edited by PR Murray, EJ Baron, JH Jorgenson et al. Washington, DC, ASM Press, 2003, pp 1005-1014
2. Helmick C, Bernard K, D'Angelo L: Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Clinical laboratory and epidemiological features of 262 cases. J Clin Microbiol 1984;12:343-350
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tickborne diseases of the United States. A Reference Manual for HealthCare Providers. First Edition, 2013. Available from URL: http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/resources/TickborneDiseases.pdf
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Substrate slides containing antigen wells for measuring antibodies to both groups of Rickettsia (spotted fever and typhus) are obtained from Focus Technologies, Inc. (Cypress, CA). The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a 2-stage "sandwich" procedure. In the 1st stage, the patient serum is diluted in yolk sac diluent. The diluted serum is placed on the slide in contact with the substrate and incubated. Following incubation, the slide is washed in buffered saline, which removes unbound serum antibodies. In the 2nd stage, each antigen well is overlaid with fluorescein-labeled antibody to human IgG or IgM. The slide is incubated allowing antigen-antibody complexes to react with the fluorescein-labeled antihuman IgG or IgM. After the slide is washed, dried, and mounted, it is examined using fluorescence microscopy. Positive reactions appear as rickettsial bodies exhibiting bright apple-green cytoplasmic fluorescence against a background of orange to red yolk sac matrix. Semiquantitative end point titers are obtained by testing serial dilutions of positive specimens.(Package insert: Rickettsia IFA IgM, Focus Technologies Inc., Cypress, CA)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday; 9 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
86757 x 2
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|84342||Spotted Fever Group Ab, IgG, S||5313-2|
|84346||Spotted Fever Group Ab, IgM, S||5315-7|