NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Evaluation of patients presenting with mosaicism, confined placental mosaicism, or Robertsonian translocations
Evaluation of patients presenting with features of disorders known to be associated with uniparental disomy (eg, Russell-Silver syndrome)
Evaluation of disease mechanism in individuals with rare autosomal recessive disease and only one carrier parent
Uniparental disomy testing is available for all chromosomes
Genetics Test Information Provides information that may help with selection of the correct test or proper submission of the test request
Samples from fetus or child and both parents are required for analysis. Chromosome of interest must be specified on request form.
Reflex Tests Lists test(s) that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial test(s)
|Test ID||Reporting Name||Available Separately||Always Performed|
|FBC||Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test||Yes||No|
|AFC||Amniotic Fluid Culture/Genetic Test||Yes||No|
Testing Algorithm Delineates situation(s) when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.
For prenatal specimens only: If amniotic fluid (non-confluent cultured cells) is received, amniotic fluid culture/genetic test will be added and charged separately. If chorionic villus specimen (non-confluent cultured cells) is received, fibroblast culture for genetic test will be added and charged separately.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)/Microsatellite markers on the chromosome of interest are used to test DNA from parents and child for the presence of uniparental disomy.
(PCR is utilized pursuant to a license agreement with Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
1. Molecular Genetics-Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information Sheet (Supply T521) in Special Instructions
2. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Supply T576) is available in Special Instructions.
3. If not ordering electronically, submit a Molecular Genetics Request Form (Supply T245) with the specimen.
For optimal interpretation of results, 3 specimens are required to perform Uniparental Disomy testing. In addition to child or fetal specimen, a blood specimen from both parents is required. Each specimen must have a separate order for UPD / Uniparental Disomy. Each specimen will be charged separately.
Specimen must arrive within 96 hours of collection.
Submit only 1 of the following specimens:
Specimen Type: Whole blood
Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)
Acceptable: Any anticoagulant
Specimen Volume: 3 mL
1. Invert several times to mix blood.
2. Send specimen in original tube.
Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated
Due to the complexity of prenatal testing, consultation with the laboratory is required for all prenatal testing. Prenatal specimens can be sent Monday through Thursday and must be received by 5 p.m. CST on Friday in order to be processed appropriately. All prenatal specimens must be accompanied by a maternal blood specimen. Order MCC / Maternal Cell Contamination, Molecular Analysis on both the prenatal and the maternal specimens.
Specimen Type: Amniotic fluid
Container/Tube: Amniotic fluid container
Specimen Volume: 20 mL
Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient
Specimen Type: Chorionic villi
Container/Tube: 15-mL tube containing 15 mL of transport media
Specimen Volume: 20 mg
Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated
Specimen Type: Confluent cultured cells
Container/Tube: T-25 flask
Specimen Volume: 2 Flasks
Collection Instructions: Submit confluent cultured cells from another laboratory.
Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Blood: 0.5 mL/Amniotic Fluid: 10 mL/Chorionic Villi: 5 mg
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Uniparental disomy (UPD) occurs when a child inherits 2 copies of a chromosome from 1 parent and no copies of that chromosome from the other parent. This error in division occurs during the formation of egg or sperm cells (meiosis). When an error causing UPD occurs during meiosis I both chromosome homologs from a single parent are transmitted, and heterodisomy results. When the error causing UPD occurs during meiosis II or as a postzygotic event, and a single parental homolog is transmitted to offspring in duplicate, isodisomy results. Meiotic recombination events within the context of UPD often result in a mixture of heterodisomy and isodisomy. UPD can involve an entire chromosome or only a segment. Mosaicism for UPD also occurs, in combination with either chromosomally normal or abnormal cell lines.
When UPD occurs, the imbalance of maternal versus paternal genetic information for the involved chromosome can be associated with clinical symptoms in the affected child. UPD does not always impart an abnormal clinical phenotype however. In fact, while isodisomy can result in disease due to a recessive allele at any location, heterodisomy is not expected to result in an abnormal clinical phenotype unless the involved chromosome or chromosomal segment includes imprinted genes. Imprinted genes demonstrate differential expression depending on parent of origin. Disorders that result from UPD of imprinted genes are not due to a defect in the imprinting mechanism itself, but rather they are due to an unbalanced parental contribution of normally imprinted alleles that results in altered expression of imprinted genes.For example, when maternal UPD 15 (2 copies of the maternal chromosome 15 instead of one maternal and one paternal copy of chromosome 15) occurs, it causes Prader-Willi syndrome due to the lack of paternally expressed genes at the imprinted site.
UPD has been described for many but not all chromosomes.In addition to the rare cases of autosomal recessive disease that result from isodisomy, clinical syndromes associated with UPD have been described for only a few chromosomes, including Russell-Silver syndrome (UPD 7), Prader-Willi syndrome (UPD 15), Angelman syndrome (UPD 15), transient neonatal diabetes (UPD 6) and UPD of chromosome14.
UPD cannot be identified by gross cytogenetic analysis, and requires DNA-based analysis using multiple polymorphic markers spanning the chromosome of interest.Specimens from both parents and the child/fetus are required.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
An interpretive report will be provided.
An interpretative report will be provided.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in our interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.
This test will detect non-paternity.
A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.
Uniparental disomy (UPD) may not be detected by our assay in cases where there is low level mosaicism for a particular chromosome.
Although UPD testing is available for all chromosomes, prenatal testing for UPD for chromosomes other than those associated with known phenotypes should be done only after genetic counseling involving adequate discussion of risks, benefits, and limitations of testing.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Schaffer LG, Agan N, Goldberg JD, et al: American College of Medical Genetics statement on diagnostic testing for uniparental disomy. Genet Med 2001;3:206-211
2. Kotzot D, Utermann G: Uniparental Disomy (UPD) other than 15: phenotypes and bibliography updated. Am J Med Genet 2005;136A:287-305
3. Kotzot D: Prenatal testing for uniparental disomy: indications and clinical relevance. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008:31:100-105
4. Engel E: A fascination with chromosome rescue in uniparental disomy: Mendelian recessive outlaws and imprinting copyrights infringements. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006 Nov;14(11):1158-69
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
A PCR-based assay, using multiple microsatellite markers (dinucleotide repeats) for the particular chromosome being tested, is used to test DNA from parents and child for the presence of UPD.(Vnencak-Jones CL: Molecular testing for inherited diseases. Am J Clin Pathol 1999;112[1 Suppl 1]:S19-S32)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Thursday; 2 p.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available) Extracted DNA: 3 months
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
81402-Uniparental disomy (UPD) (eg, Russell-Silver sy ndrome, Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome), short tandem repeat (STR) analysis
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|17273||Reason For Referral||42349-1|