NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Monitoring for appropriate therapeutic concentration
Assessing compliance or toxicity
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Red top
Specimen Volume: 1 mL
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum Red||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Phenobarbital is a general central nervous system (CNS) suppressant that has proven effective in the control of generalized and partial seizures. It is frequently coadministered with phenytoin for control of complex seizure disorders and with valproic acid for complex parietal seizures.
Phenobarbital is administered in doses of 60 to 300 mg/day in adults or 3 to 6 mg/kg/day in children.
Phenobarbital is slowly but completely absorbed, with bioavailability in the range of 100%. It is approximately 50% protein bound with a volume of distribution of 0.5 L/kg. Phenobarbital has a long half-life of 96 hours, with no known active metabolites.
Sedation is common at therapeutic concentrations for the first 2 to 3 weeks of therapy, but this side effect disappears with time.
Toxicity due to phenobarbital overdose is characterized by CNS sedation and reduced respiratory function. Mild symptoms characterized by ataxia, nystagmus, fatigue, or attention loss, occur at blood concentrations >40 mcg/mL. Symptoms become severe at concentrations > or =60 mcg/mL. Toxicity becomes life-threatening at concentrations >100 mcg/mL. Death usually occurs due to respiratory arrest when pulmonary support is not supplied manually.
There are no known drug interactions that significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital; conversely, phenobarbital affects the pharmacokinetics of other drugs significantly because it induces the synthesis of enzymes associated with the hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolic pathway.
Acute intermittent porphyria attacks may be induced by phenobarbital stimulation of hepatic cytochrome P450.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Infants and children: 15.0-30.0 mcg/mL
Adults: 20.0-40.0 mcg/mL
Toxic concentration: > or =60.0 mcg/mL
Clinical response to the drug correlates strongly with blood concentration.
Dosage adjustments are made after 2 weeks of therapy to achieve steady-state blood levels in the range of 20 to 40 mcg/mL for adults; 15 to 30 mcg/mL for infants and children.
Patients chronically administered phenobarbital usually do not experience sedation unless the blood concentration is >40 mcg/mL.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
No significant cautionary statements
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
Foero O, Kastrup KW, Nielsen EL, et al: Successful prophylaxis of febrile convulsions with phenobarbital. Epilepsia 1972;13:279-285
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) performed using Olympus analyzer: EMIT offers an alternative to the traditional spectroscopic and chromatographic method for quantitating blood concentrations of drugs. The technique for drugs is based upon an enzymatic assay for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, using spectral properties at 340 nm, in which the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) substrate is monitored. The basis of the drug detection technique is an immunological reaction between the drug and a specific antibody. The reagent contains the enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) to which the drug is covalently bound and antibody-specific to the drug. The antibody binds most of the drug-bound enzyme, rendering the enzyme inactive. This results in a baseline enzymatic activity. In the presence of free drug, antibody equilibrates between free drug and enzyme-bound drug leaving some of the drug-bound enzyme uncomplexed and able to catalyze the reaction. If more free drug is introduced, either as standard or sample, then competition for the antibody takes place between the drug in the sample and the drug attached to the enzyme. This results in more drug-bound enzyme being left uncomplexed and able to catalyze the enzyme reaction at a greater rate as compared to the baseline activity. The observed enzyme activity increases with the amount of total free drug in the sample.(Moyer TP: Therapeutic drug monitoring. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Fourth edition. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 2005, pp 1237-1285)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Sunday; Varies
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|