Vancomycin, Trough, Serum
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Trough concentrations drawn at steady-state are the preferred test for monitoring vancomycin therapy.
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Vancomycin, Trough, S
Vancocin (Vancomycin Hydrochloride)
Vancocin (Vancomycin Hydrochloride)
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Collection Container/Tube: Red top
Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial
Specimen Volume: 1 mL
1. Draw specimen immediately prior to the next dose (within 30 minutes).
2. Spin down within 2 hours of draw.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Serum gel tube
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum Red||Frozen||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat infections caused by gram-positive organisms that are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA), Staphylococcus viridans group, penicillin/cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and penicillin/ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus species.
The oral formulation, which is not absorbed, is used in the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile. Vancomycin is also used when patients are intolerant or allergic to beta lactams.
Vancomycin has been associated with nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, although it appears that many of these reports reflected impurities in early formulations. Monitoring of vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity is recommended only for patients with reduced renal function, those receiving aggressive or prolonged vancomycin regimens, or those at high risk including patients co-medicated with other nephrotoxic agents.
Trough concentrations are recommended for therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin, preferably acquired at steady-state (just before fourth dose). To avoid development of resistance, vancomycin trough levels should remain >10 mcg/mL. Complicated infections require higher target levels, typically 15 to 20 mcg/mL. Peak concentrations do not correlate well to efficacy or nephrotoxicity, but may be useful for pharmacokinetic analyses (eg, area under the curve [AUC]studies) or for select patients.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Therapeutic concentration: 10.0-20.0 mcg/mL
Complicated infections: 15.0-20.0 mcg/mL
Trough levels correlate better with efficacy than peak levels, with target trough levels of 10 mcg/mL to 20 mcg/mL, depending on the type of infection.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Rybak M, Lomaestro B, Rotschafer JC, et al: Therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin in adult patients: A consensus review of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2009;66:82-98
2. Estes L, Wilson J: Mayo Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy, Mayo Clinic, 2005-2008
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) performed using the Olympus analyzer. EMIT offers an alternative to the traditional spectroscopic and chromatographic method for quantitating blood concentrations of drugs. The technique for drugs is based upon an enzymatic assay for glucose-6-phosphate ehydrogenase, using spectral properties at 340 nm, in which the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) substrate is monitored. The basis of the drug detection technique is an immunological reaction between the drug and a specific antibody. The reagent contains the enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) to which the drug is covalently bound and an antibody specific to the drug. The antibody binds most of the drug-bound enzyme, rendering the enzyme inactive. This results in a baseline enzymatic activity. In the presence of free drug, antibody equilibrates between free drug and enzyme-bound drug leaving some of the drug-bound enzyme uncomplexed and able to catalyze the reaction. If more free drug is introduced, either as standard or sample, then competition for the antibody takes place between the drug in the sample and the drug attached to the enzyme. This results in more drug-bound enzyme being left uncomplexed and able to catalyze the enzyme reaction at a greater rate as compared to the baseline activity. The observed enzyme activity increases with the amount of total free drug in the sample. (Moyer TP: Therapeutic drug monitoring. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. 4th edition. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2005, pp 1237-1285)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Sunday; Varies
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|6802||Vancomycin, Trough, S||4092-3|