NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Evaluation of electrolyte balance, cardiac arrhythmia, muscular weakness, hepatic encephalopathy, and renal failure
Potassium should be monitored during treatment of many conditions but especially in diabetic ketoacidosis and any intravenous therapy for fluid replacement.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Potentiometric, Indirect Ion-Selective Electrode.
Also available as part of an Electrolyte Panel.
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
K and Na (Potassium and Sodium) Plasma or Serum (ORDER 8468)
K+ and Na+ (ORDER 8468)
Na+ and K+ (ORDER 8468)
Potassium and Sodium, Plasma or Serum
K+ and Na+ (ORDER 8468)
Na+ and K+ (ORDER 8468)
Potassium and Sodium, Plasma or Serum
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Preferred: Serum gel
Acceptable: Red top
Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL
Additional Information: Patient's age and sex are required.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild reject; Gross reject
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Potassium (K) is the major cation of the intracellular fluid. Disturbance of potassium homeostasis has serious consequences.
Decreases in extracellular potassium are characterized by muscle weakness, irritability, and eventual paralysis. Cardiac effects include tachycardia, other cardiac conduction abnormalities that are apparent by electrocardiographic examination, and eventual cardiac arrest.
Hypokalemia (low K) is common in vomiting, diarrhea, alcoholism, and folic acid deficiency. Additionally, >90% of hypertensive patients with aldosteronism have hypokalemia.
Abnormally high extracellular K levels produce symptoms of mental confusion; weakness, numbness and tingling of the extremities; weakness of the respiratory muscles; flaccid paralysis of the extremities; slowed heart rate; and eventually peripheral vascular collapse and cardiac arrest. Hyperkalemia may be seen in end-stage renal failure, hemolysis, trauma, Addison's disease, metabolic acidosis, acute starvation, dehydration, and with rapid K infusion.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
> or =12 months: 3.6-5.2 mmol/L
Reference values have not been established for patients that are less than 12 months of age.
Potassium levels <3.0 mmol/L are associated with marked neuromuscular symptoms and are evidence of a critical degree of intracellular depletion. Potassium levels <2.5 mmol/L are potentially life-threatening.
High potassium can be an acute medical emergency, particularly if the potassium increases over a short period of time. At values >6.0 mmol/L, symptoms are typically apparent. Potassium levels >6.0 mmol/L are potentially life-threatening. Levels >10.0 mmol/L are, in most cases, fatal.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
It is important to remember that whole blood potassium values determined by direct potentiometry/ion-selective electrodes may be slightly higher in specimens with high protein and lipid concentrations than the corresponding serum specimen that is assayed by an indirect potentiometric method. The whole blood potassium values are the correct values.
Ion-selective electrodes are selective for the ion in question but are not absolutely specific. Other monovalent cations may interfere but not in the physiologic range.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, 4th edition by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood, DE Bruns. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2006;27:984-987; 2006;46:1754-1757
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Ion-selective electrode (ISE) (indirect potentiometry). The ISE module of the P-Module performs indirect measurement of electromotive force (EMF). The ISE module measures the EMF difference between an ion-selective electrode and a reference electrode. The EMF of the ion-selective electrode is dependent on the ion concentration of the sample. The EMF of the reference electrode is constant. The P-Module uses an electronic calculation circuit to convert EMF of the sample to the ion concentration of the sample. (Package insert: Roche Diagnostics ISE reagent; Indianapolis, IN, 2006)
Supplemental Report Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Sunday Continuously
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|