Pipecolic Acid, Serum
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Differential diagnosis between disorders of peroxisomal biogenesis (eg, Zellweger syndrome) and disorders with loss of a single peroxisomal function
Abnormal elevations of pipecolic acid can be detected in either serum or urine
Genetics Test Information Provides information that may help with selection of the correct test or proper submission of the test request
Be aware that levels of pipecolic acid can be normal in newborns. Abnormal levels of pipecolic acid should be interpreted together with the results of other biochemical markers of peroxisomal disorders, such as plasma C22-C26 very long-chain fatty acids, phytanic acid, pristanic acid, RBC plasmalogens, and bile acid intermediates.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Pipecolic Acid, S
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Preferred: Red top
Acceptable: Serum gel
Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial
Specimen Volume: 1.5 mL
1. Fasting (12 hours or more, infants and small children just before next feeding)
2. Spin down within 45 minutes of draw.
Additional Information: Patient's age is required.
1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Supply T576) is available in Special Instructions.
2. If not ordering electronically, submit a Biochemical Genetics Request Form (Supply T439) with the specimen.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Pipecolic acid (PA) is an intermediate of lysine metabolism and is oxidized in the peroxisomes by the enzyme L-pipecolate oxidase. In peroxisome biogenesis disorders (eg, Zellweger syndrome), the activity of this enzyme is lost, resulting in an increase in pipecolic acid levels. In contrast, in peroxisomal disorders involving single enzyme deficiencies such as D-bifunctional protein deficiency, PA is not elevated, therefore PA analysis is useful for differentiating between these 2 groups of disorders.
Increased pipecolic acid levels may also be seen in alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy), hyperlysinemia types 1 and 2, and defects in proline metabolism.
Theoretically, a defect in L-pipecolate oxidase can exist and several cases of hyperpipecolic acidemia have been reported, but a specific enzyme deficiency has not been described in any of the patients.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
<6 months: < or =6.0 nmol/mL
6 months-<1 year: < or =5.9 nmol/mL
1-17 years: < or =4.3 nmol/mL
> or =18 years: < or =7.4 nmol/mL
Elevated pipecolic acid levels are seen in disorders of peroxisomal biogenesis; normal levels are seen in disorders with loss of a single peroxisomal function.
Abnormal levels of pipecolic acid should be interpreted together with the results of other biochemical markers of peroxisomal disorders, such as plasma C22-C26 very long-chain fatty acids, phytanic acid, and pristanic acid (POX / Fatty Acid Profile, Peroxisomal [C22-C26], Serum), RBC plasmalogens, and bile acid intermediates.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Newborns with disorders of peroxisomal biogenesis often have normal levels of pipecolic acid which increase with age.
Abnormal results may reflect either prematurity or nongenetic liver and/or renal disease.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Gould SJ, Raymond GV, Valle D: The peroxisome biogenesis disorders. In The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. Eighth edition. Edited by CR Scriver, AL Beaudet, D Valle, et al. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2001, pp 3181-3217
2. Wanders RJA, Barth PG, Heymans HAS: Single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. In The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. Eighth edition. Edited by CR Scriver, AL Beaudet, D Valle, et al. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2001, pp 3247-3248
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Pipecolic acid is quantitated by a stable isotope dilution method; electron capture negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of pentafluorobenzyl esters.(Kok RM, Kaster L, de Jong AP, et al: Stable isotope dilution analysis of pipecolic acid in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, urine and amniotic fluid using electron capture negative ion mass fragmentography. Clin Chim Acta 1987;168:143-152)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Varies; Batched 2 times per month; 8 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|81326||Pipecolic Acid, S||32334-5|