Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy (Kennedy's Disease), Molecular Analysis
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Molecular confirmation of clinically suspected cases of sporadic or familial spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA)
Presymptomatic testing for individuals with a family history of SBMA and a documented expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay is utilized to detect expansion-type mutations (CAG repeats) within the androgen receptor gene.
(PCR is utilized pursuant to a license agreement with Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Spinobulbar Musc Atrophy, Kennedy's
SBMA (Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy)
SBMA (Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy)
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Specimen must arrive within 96 hours of draw.
Specimen Type: Whole blood
Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)
Acceptable: Any anticoagulant
Specimen Volume: 3 mL
1. Invert several times to mix blood.
2. Send specimen in original tube.
1. Molecular Genetics-Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information Sheet (Supply T521) in Special Instructions
2. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Supply T576) is available in Special Instructions.
3. If not ordering electronically, submit a Molecular Genetics Request Form (Supply T245) with the specimen.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (spinobulbar muscular atrophy [SBMA], or Kennedy's disease) is characterized by onset of progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, and fasciculations typically in the 4th or 5th decade of life. Affected patients also have signs of androgen insensitivity such as gynecomastia, reduced fertility, and testicular atrophy. The clinical severity and age at onset can be quite variable, even within families. Because this is an X-linked disease, males manifest this disorder and females are generally asymptomatic carriers. However, there have been reports of female carriers who exhibit symptoms such as muscle weakness and cramping.
SBMA is caused by an expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the human androgen receptor (AR) gene. This trinucleotide repeat is polymorphic in the general population, with the number of repeats ranging from 11 to 34. The number of repeats found in affected individuals can range from 38 to 62. There is no consensus as to the clinical significance of alleles of 35 CAG repeats and literature suggests that alleles of 36 to 37 CAG repeats may be associated with reduced penetrance. As with other trinucleotide repeat disorders, anticipation is frequently observed and larger CAG expansions are associated with earlier onset and a more rapid clinical progression.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Normal alleles: 11-34 CAG repeats
Abnormal alleles: 36-62 CAG repeats
An interpretive report will be provided.
An interpretive report will be provided.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
For predictive testing, it is important to first document the presence of a CAG-repeat amplification in the AR gene in an affected family member to confirm that molecular expansion is the underlying mechanism of disease in the family.
We strongly recommend that patients undergoing predictive testing receive genetic counseling both prior to testing and after results are available.
Predictive testing of an asymptomatic child is not recommended.
Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in our interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.
A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.
Current evidence suggests that the majority of individuals with SBMA have a CAG-repeat expansion. However, we cannot eliminate the possibility that another type of mutation not detected by our assay is present within the AR gene.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
Pinsky L, Beitel LK, Trifiro MA: Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy. In The Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. Vol. 4. 8th edition. Edited by CR Scriver. AL Beaudet, WS Sly, et al. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2001, pp 4147-4157
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Direct mutation analysis. A PCR-based assay is used to detect amplification-type mutations (CAG-repeat expansion) within the AR gene. (Doyu M, Sobue G, Mukai E, et al: Severity of X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy correlated with size of the tandem CAG repeat in androgen receptor gene. Ann Neurol 1992;31:707-710)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Tuesday; 10 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available) Extracted DNA: 3 months
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
81401-AR (androgen receptor) (eg, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy disease, X chromosome inactivation), characterization of alleles (eg, expanded size or methylation status)
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|16664||Reason For Referral||42349-1|