Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type 1, CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 Complex Immunophenotyping, Blood
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
As an aid in the diagnosis of LAD-1 syndrome, primarily in patients <18 years of age
CD11a, CD11b, and CD18 phenotyping
Flow Cytometric Immunophenotyping
Includes evaluation of markers CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18.
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Leukocyte Adhesion Def. Type 1, B
LAD (Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency)
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency-1
LAD (Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency)
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency-1
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Whole Blood EDTA
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Specimen should arrive within 24 hours of draw. Send specimen Monday through Thursday only. The specimen will be rejected if >72 hours old. A specimen 48 to 72 hours old will be processed and reported with a disclaimer if expression is absent.
Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA)
Specimen Volume: 5 mL
Collection Instructions: Send specimen in original tube.
1. Date and time of draw and physician name and phone number are required.
2. For serial monitoring, we recommend that specimen draws be performed at the same time of day.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Whole Blood EDTA||Ambient||72 hours|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 1 (LAD-1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the common chain (CD18) of the beta2-integrin family. LAD-1 is clinically characterized by recurrent infections, impaired wound healing, delayed umbilical cord separation, persistent leukocytosis, and recurrent soft tissue and oral infections.
Each of the beta2-integrins is a heterodimer composed of an alpha chain (CD11a, CD11b, or CD11c) noncovalently linked to a common beta2-subunit (CD18). The alpha-beta heterodimers of the beta2-integrin family include LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), Mac-1/CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and p150/95 (CD11c/CD18).(1-4) The CD18 gene, ITGB2, and its product are required for normal expression of the alpha-beta heterodimers. Therefore, defects in CD18 expression lead to either very low or no surface membrane expression of CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c.
Severe and moderate forms of LAD-1 exist, differing in the degrees of protein deficiency, which are caused by different ITGB2 mutations. Two relatively distinct clinical phenotypes of LAD-1 have been described. Patients with the severe phenotype (<1% of normal expression of CD18 on neutrophils) characteristically have delayed umbilical stump separation (>30 days), infection of the umbilical stump (omphalitis), persistent leukocytosis (>15,000/microliter) in the absence of overt active infection, and severe destructive gingivitis with periodontitis and associated tooth loss, and alveolar bone resorption. Patients with the moderate phenotype of LAD-1 (1%-30% of normal expression of CD18 on neutrophils) tend to be diagnosed later in life. Normal umbilical separation, lower risk of life-threatening infections, and longer life expectancy are common in these patients. However, leukocytosis, periodontal disease, and delayed wound healing are still very significant clinical features.
Patients with LAD-1 (and other primary immunodeficiency diseases) are unlikely to remain undiagnosed in adulthood. Consequently, this test should not be typically ordered in adults for LAD-1. However, it may be also used to assess immune competence by determining CD18, 11a, and 11b expression.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Normal (reported as normal or absent expression for each marker)
The report will include a summary interpretation of the presence or reduction in the level of expression of the individual markers (CD11a, CD11b, and CD18). Expression of the individual markers provides indirect information on the presence or absence of the CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 complexes.
Specimens obtained from patients with LAD-1 show significant reduction (moderate phenotype) or near absence (severe phenotype) of CD18 and its associated molecules, CD11a and CD11b, on neutrophils and other leukocytes.
CD11c expression also is low in LAD-1. The analytical sensitivity of the CD11c assay is insufficient to allow interpretation of CD11c surface expression. Therefore, we test only for expression of CD18, CD11a, and CD11b.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
This test is typically not indicated in adults. For questions about appropriate test selection, contact Mayo Medical Laboratories.
Patients with normal beta2-integrin expression without functional activity have been described.(5-6) Therefore, expression of CD18 alone is insufficient to exclude the diagnosis of LAD-1; functional assays (eg, neutrophil chemotaxis, random migration assays) must be performed if the clinical suspicion is high.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Anderson DC, Springer TA: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency: an inherited defect in the Mac-1, LFA-1, and p150,95 glycoproteins. Ann Rev Med 1987;38:175-194
2. Corbi AL, Vara A, Ursa A, et al: Molecular basis for a severe case of leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Eur J Immunol 1992;22:1877-1881
3. Harlan JM: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome: insights into the molecular basis of leukocyte emigration. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1993;67:S16-S24
4. O'Gorman MR, McNally AC, Anderson DC, et al: A rapid whole blood lysis technique for the diagnosis of moderate or severe leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD). Ann NY Acad Sci 1993;677:427-430
5. Hogg N, Stewart MP, Scarth SL, et al: A novel leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by expressed but nonfunctional beta2 integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1. J Clin Invest 1999;103:97-106
6. Kuijpers TW, van Lier RAW, Hamann D, et al: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD/1) variant. J Clin Invest 1997;100:1725-1733
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of peripheral blood is performed to evaluate the presence or absence of the CD11/CD18 complex using monoclonal antibodies directed against the CD11 isoforms, CD11a and CD11b, and CD18 antigens.(O'Gorman MR, McNally AC, Anderson DC, et al: A rapid whole blood lysis technique for the diagnosis of moderate or severe leukocyte adhesion deficiency [LAD]. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993;677:427-430)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday
Do not send specimen after Thursday. Specimen must be received by 10 a.m. on Friday.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed using an analyte specific reagent. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
88184-Flow cytometry, cell surface, cytoplasmic
88185 x 2-Each additional marker
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|81155||Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency, B||In Process|
|432||LAD Interpretation||In Process|