NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Optimizing dosage, monitoring compliance, and assessing toxicity
Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Red top
Specimen Volume: 1 mL
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Serum gel tube
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum Red||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Haloperidol (Haldol) is a member of the butyrophenone class of neuroleptic drugs used to treat psychotic disorders (eg, schizophrenia). It is also used to control the tics and verbal utterances associated with Tourette's syndrome and in the management of intensely hyperexcitable children who fail to respond to other treatment modalities.
The daily recommended oral dose for patients with moderate symptoms is 0.5 to 2.0 mg; for patients with severe symptoms, 3 to 5 mg may be used. However, some patients will respond only at significantly higher doses.
Haloperidol is metabolized in the liver to reduced haloperidol, its major metabolite.(1,2)
Use of haloperidol is associated with significant toxic side effects, the most serious of which include tardive dyskinesia which can be irreversible, extrapyramidal reactions with Parkinson-like symptoms, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Less serious side effects can include hypotension, anticholinergic effects (blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), and sedation. The risk of developing serious, irreversible side effects seems to increase with increasing cumulative doses over time.(1,3)
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Studies show a strong relationship between dose and serum concentration (4); however, there is a modest relationship of clinical response or risk of developing long-term side effects to either dose or serum concentration.
A therapeutic window exists for haloperidol; patients who respond at serum concentrations between 5 to 16 ng/mL show no additional improvement at concentrations >16 to 20 ng/mL.(3,5) Some patients may respond at concentrations <5 ng/mL, and others may require concentrations significantly >20 ng/mL before an adequate response is attained.
Because of such inter-individual variation, the serum concentration should only be used as 1 factor in determining the appropriate dose and must be interpreted in conjunction with the clinical status.
Although the metabolite, reduced haloperidol, has minimal pharmacologic activity, evidence has been presented suggesting that an elevated ratio of reduced haloperidol-to-haloperidol (ie, >5) is predictive of a poor clinical response.(3,6) A reduced haloperidol-to-haloperidol ratio <0.5 indicates noncompliance; the metabolite does not accumulate except during steady-state conditions.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Potentially interfering drugs include hydroxyzine (interferes with haloperidol), tiagabine (interferes with reduced haloperidol), and quetiapine (interferes with internal standard resulting in artificially low haloperidol).
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Lawson GM: Monitoring of serum haloperidol. Mayo Clin Proc 1994;69:189-190
2. Ereshefsky L, Davis CM, Harrington CA, et al: Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma levels in selected schizophrenic patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1984;4:138-142
3. Volavka J, Cooper TB: Review of haloperidol blood level and clinical response: looking through the window. J Clin Psycho-pharmacol 1987;7:25-30
4. Moulin MA, Davy JP, Debruyne JC, et al: Serum level monitoring and therapeutic effect of haloperidol in schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology 76:346-350, 1982
5. Van Putten T, Marder SR, Mintz J, Polant RE: Haloperidol plasma levels and clinical response: a therapeutic window relationship. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:500-505
6. Shostak M, Perel JM, Stiller RL, et al: Plasma haloperidol and clinical response: a role for reduced haloperidol in antipsychotic activity? J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987;7:394-400
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Liquid-liquid extraction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Tuesday, Thursday; 9 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|