Mumps Virus Antibody, IgM and IgG (Separate Determinations), Serum
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Laboratory diagnosis of mumps virus infection
Determination of postimmunization immune response of individuals to the mumps vaccine
Documentation of previous infection with mumps virus in an individual with no previous record of immunization to mumps virus
Profile Information A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.
|Test ID||Reporting Name||Available Separately||Always Performed|
|MMPM||Mumps Ab, IgM, S||Yes||Yes|
|MPPG||Mumps Ab, IgG, S||Yes||Yes|
MMPM: Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)
MPPG: Multiplex Flow Immunoassay (MFI)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Mumps Ab, IgM and IgG, S
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Preferred: Red top
Acceptable: Serum gel
Specimen Volume: 1 mL
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross reject
Mild OK; Gross reject
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
The mumps virus is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses, which include parainfluenza virus serotypes 1-4, measles, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Mumps is highly infectious among unvaccinated individuals and is typically transmitted through inhalation of infected respiratory droplets or secretions. Following an approximately 2-week incubation period, symptom onset is typically acute with a prodrome of low-grade fever, headache, and malaise.(1,2) Painful enlargement of the salivary glands, the hallmark of mumps, occurs in approximately 60% to 70% of infections and in 95% of patients with symptoms. Testicular pain (orchitis) occurs in approximately 15% to 30% of postpubertal men and abdominal pain (oophoritis) is found in 5% of postpubertal women.(1) Other complications include mumps-associated pancreatitis (<5% of cases) and central nervous system disease (meningitis <10% and encephalitis <1%).
Widespread routine immunization of infants with attenuated mumps virus has dramatically decreased the number of reported mumps cases in the United States. However, outbreaks continue to occur, indicating persistence of the virus in the general population.
Laboratory diagnosis of mumps is typically accomplished by detection of IgM- and IgG-class antibodies to the mumps virus. However, due to the widespread mumps vaccination program, in clinically suspected cases of acute mumps infection, serologic testing should be supplemented with virus isolation in culture or detection of viral nucleic acid by PCR in throat, saliva, or urine specimens.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Negative (reported as positive, equivocal, or negative)
Index value 0.00-0.79=negative
Vaccinated: Positive (> or =1.1 AI)
Unvaccinated: Negative (< or =0.8 AI)
A positive IgG result coupled with a positive IgM result suggests recent infection with mumps virus. This result should not be used alone to diagnose mumps infection and should be interpreted in the context of clinical presentation.
A positive IgG result coupled with a negative IgM result indicates previous vaccination to or infection with mumps virus. These individuals are considered to have protective immunity to reinfection.
A negative IgG result coupled with a negative IgM result indicates the absence of prior exposure to mumps virus and nonimmunity. However, a negative result does not rule-out mumps infection or response to vaccination. The specimen may have been drawn before the appearance of detectable antibodies. Negative results in suspected early mumps infection or within a week following vaccination should be followed by testing a new serum specimen in 2 to 3 weeks.
Equivocal results should be followed up with testing of a new serum specimen within 10 to 14 days.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Serum specimens obtained during the acute phase of infection or soon after vaccination may be negative for IgM- or IgG-class antibodies by serological tests.
All positive IgM results must be interpreted cautiously as some false-positive results or heterotypical responses of the IgM have been seen in the serum of pregnant women or in patients with an acute infection caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, measles, rubella, or parvovirus.
Testing for IgM-class antibodies to mumps virus should be limited to patients with a clinically compatible disease.
Mumps virus shares antigenic relationships with other viruses of the paramyxovirus group; therefore serologic cross-reactions are possible, but uncommon with this test procedure.
IgG-class antibodies to mumps virus may be present in serum specimens from individuals who have received blood products within the past several months, but have not been immunized or experienced past infection with this virus.
The SeraQuest mumps IgM kit showed a sensitivity of 97.3% and a specificity of 96.6% when 160 specimens were tested in parallel with a reference method.(Package insert: SeraQuest, North Miami, FL)
To evaluate the accuracy of the BioPlex Mumps IgG multiplex flow immunoassay (MFI), 500 prospective serum specimens were analyzed in a blinded fashion by the SeraQuest Mumps IgG EIA and the BioPlex Mumps IgG assay. Specimens with discordant results after initial testing were repeated by both assays during the same freeze/thaw cycle. Further discrepancies were evaluated by the Mumps IgG VIDAS enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (ELFA; bioMerieux, Inc). The results are summarized below:
SeraQuest Mumps IgG EIA
BioPlex Mumps IgG
(a) All 4 of these samples tested positive by VIDAS Mumps IgG ELFA
(b) One of these 3 samples tested negative by the VIDAS Mumps IgG ELFA
Sensitivity: 98.1% (412/420); 95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 96.2%-99.1%
Specificity: 82.8% (48/58); 95% CI: 70.9%-90.6%
Overall Percent Agreement: 94.2% (471/500); 95% CI: 91.8%-96.0%
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Hviid A, Rubin S, Muhlemann K: Mumps. Lancet 2008 Mar;371(9616):932-944
2. Hodinka RL, Moshal KL: Childhood infections. In Essentials of Diagnostic Virology. Edited by GA Storch. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 2000, pp 168-178
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
The SeraQuest mumps IgM is an enzyme capture method. Diluted samples are incubated in wells coated with antihuman-IgM monoclonal antibodies. If present, IgM antibodies are captured in the wells. Wells are washed, removing excess sample. Conjugate-antigen complex (mumps antigen in complex with monoclonal antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase) is added and wells are incubated. IgM antibodies specific for the antigen will bind the conjugate. Wells are washed, removing excess conjugate. Peroxidase substrate is added and wells are incubated. Stop solution is added converting the substrate to a yellow end product, which is read photometrically.(Package insert: Mumps IgM, SeraQuest, North Miami, FL)
The BioPlex 2200 Mumps IgG assay uses multiplex flow immunoassay technology. Briefly, serum samples are mixed and incubated at 37 degrees C with sample diluent and dyed beads coated with mumps antigen. After a wash cycle, antihuman-IgG antibody conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) is added to the mixture and incubated at 37 degrees C. Excess conjugate is removed in another wash cycle and the beads are resuspended in wash buffer. The bead mixture then passes through a detector that identifies the bead based on dye fluorescence and determines the amount of antibody captured by the antigen by the fluorescence of the attached PE. Raw data is calculated in relative fluorescence intensity. Three additional dyed beads, an internal standard bead, a serum verification bead, and a reagent blank bead are present in each reaction mixture to verify detector response, the addition of serum to the reaction vessel and the absence of significant nonspecific binding in serum.(Package insert: BioPlex 2200 System MMRV IgG, Bio-Rad Laboratories Clinical Diagnostics Group, Hercules, CA)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Saturday, 9 a.m.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Same day/1 day
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|MUMP1||Mumps Ab, IgM, S||6478-2|
|MUMG||Mumps Ab, IgG, S||In Process|
|DEXG5||Mumps IgG Antibody Index||In Process|