NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Monitoring patient compliance
An aid to achieving desired plasma levels
Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Red top
Specimen Volume: 1 mL
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Mild OK; Gross OK
Mild OK; Gross OK
Serum gel tube
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Serum Red||Refrigerated (preferred)||14 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Clozapine (Clozaril), a tricyclic dibenzodiazepine, is used for the symptomatic management of psychotic disorders and is considered an atypical antipsychotic drug. It is currently used primarily for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders who are at risk for recurrent suicidal behavior and who have encountered nonresponse or adverse, intolerable extra-pyramidal side effects with more classical antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, haloperidol).
Although clozapine was developed about 30 years ago and the initial results were promising, the development of several fatal cases of agranulocytosis resulted in the discontinued use of this agent. Seizures, an increased risk of fatal myocarditis, and orthostatic hypotension have also been associated with the use of clozapine. The use of clozapine has regained interest for several reasons. Patients who did not respond to treatment with other antipsychotics improved when clozapine was administered. Also, the agranulocytosis that occurs in approximately 1% to 2% of patients can be controlled with close hematologic monitoring. However, because of the significant risk of agranulocytosis and seizure associated with its use, clozapine should only be used in patients who have failed to respond adequately to treatment with appropriate courses of standard drug treatments, either because of insufficient effectiveness or the inability to achieve an effective dose because of intolerable adverse reactions from those drugs.
Treatment is usually started with dosages of 25 to 75 mg/day with a gradual increase to reach a final dose of 300 to 450 mg/day within approximately 2 weeks of the initiation of treatment. Once the desired effect is achieved, the dose may be gradually decreased to keep the patient on the lowest possible effective dose.
Patients being treated with clozapine should be closely monitored during treatment for adverse reactions. Treatment must include monitoring of white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil count. Clozapine treatment should be discontinued in patients failing to show an acceptable clinical response. In addition, in patients exhibiting beneficial clinical responses, the need for continuing treatment should be periodically reevaluated.
Clozapine is metabolized to desmethylated and N-oxide derivatives. The desmethyl metabolite (norclozapine) has only limited activity, and N-oxide metabolite is inactive.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Therapeutic range: >350 ng/mL
CLOZAPINE + NORCLOZAPINE
Therapeutic range: >450 ng/mL
The effectiveness of clozapine treatment should be based on clinical response and treatment should be discontinued in patients failing to show an acceptable clinical response.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
No significant cautionary statements
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Volpicelli SA, Centorrino F, Puopolo PR, et al: Determination of clozapine, norclozapine, and clozapine-N-oxide in serum by liquid chromatography. ClinChem 1993;39(8):1656-1659
2. Chung MC, Lin SK, Chang WH, Jann MW: Determination of clozapine and desmethylclozapine in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr 1993;613:168-173
3. Perry PJ, Miller DD, Arndt SV, Cadoret RJ: Clozapine and norclozapine plasma concentrations and clinical response of treatment-refractory schizophrenia patients. Am J Psychiatry 1991;40(5);722-747
4. Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR) 2007
5. Fitton A, Heel RC: Clozapine. A review of its pharmacological properties, and therapeutic use in schizophrenia. Drugs 1991;40(5);722-747
6. Package insert: Clozaril. East Hanover, NJ: Novartis Pharmaceuticals; May 2005
7. Mitchell PB: Therapeutic drug monitoring of psychotropic medications. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001;52 Suppl 1:45S-54S
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Deuterated stable isotope of clozapine (clozapine-d4) is added to a serum sample as an internal standard. Protein is precipitated from the mixture by the addition of acetonitrile. Clozapine, norclozapine, and the internal standard are extracted from the resulting supernatant by an online extraction utilizing high-throughout liquid chromatography. This is followed by conventional liquid chromatography and analysis on a tandem mass spectrometer equipped with a heated nebulizer ion source.(Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|