Fecal Occult Blood, Colorectal Cancer Screen, Qualitative, Immunochemical
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Colorectal cancer screening
Screening for gastrointestinal bleeding
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
Occult Blood, QL, Immunochemical, F
Fecal Occult Blood
Fecal Occult Blood
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Container/Tube: Fecal Occult Blood Test Kit (Supply T682)
Specimen Volume: Sample must fill the grooved portion of the sample probe
1. Collect a random stool specimen.
2. See Fecal Occult Blood Test Kit (Supply T682) package insert for instructions.
3. Specimen must be collected in specific sample vial within 4 hours of defecation.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Sample must cover the entire grooved portion of the sample probe.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
|Fecal||Refrigerated (preferred)||30 days|
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is 1 of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States (US), and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. CRC almost always develops from adenomatous polyps, yet patients remain asymptomatic until the cancer progresses to a fairly advanced stage. Screening for colorectal cancer is strongly advocated for by the US Preventive Services Task Force, the American Cancer Society, the American College of Gastroenterology, and other clinical societies, due to the high incidence of disease and decrease in mortality with medical intervention. Men and women at average risk for colorectal cancer should be screened at regular intervals beginning at age 50, continuing until age 75. Individuals with certain high-risk factors (age, African-American race, inflammatory intestinal disorders, family history of colon cancer, obesity, diabetes, poor diet) may consider earlier screening strategies.
Several options are available for CRC screening and includes fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. FOBT historically utilized guaiac-based tests that identify the presence of hemoglobin based on a nonspecific peroxidase reaction. Guaiac-based FOBT is no longer recommended for cancer screening because it does not detect most polyps and cancers. Furthermore, the false-positive rate with guaiac tests is high if patients do not follow the recommended dietary (withholding notably meat, certain vegetables, iron supplements) or pharmaceutical (withholding nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin C) restrictions. Finally, multiple stool collections are needed for optimal interpretation of guaiac-based FOBT results.
Fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) has evolved as the preferred occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity of guaiac-based methods. FIT specifically detects the presence of human hemoglobin, eliminating the need for dietary and medication restrictions. For colorectal cancer screening only a single collection is required. The specificity of FIT is routinely >95% with reported sensitivities ranging from 40% to 70% based on the patient population. The clinical specificity of FIT is 97% based on internal studies conducted at Mayo.
To evaluate occult GI bleeding in patients with anemia or iron deficiency, the HemoQuant test should be used (HQ / HemoQuant, Feces). Neither FIT nor guaiac testing detects upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding because globin and heme are degraded during intestinal transit. In contrast, the HemoQuant test detects occult bleeding equally well from all sources within the GI tract. The HemoQuant test utilizes a specific fluorometric method that will detect any hemoglobin or heme-derived porphyrins in the stool, is very sensitive, and provides quantitative results.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
This test has not been validated in a pediatric population, results should be interpreted in the context of the patient's presentation.
This is a quantitative assay but results are reported qualitatively as negative or positive for the presence of fecal occult blood; the cutoff for positivity is 100 ng/mL hemoglobin. The following comments will be reported with the qualitative result for patients >17 years:
-Positive results; further testing is recommended if clinically indicated. This test has 97% specificity for detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in colorectal cancer.
-Negative results; this test will not detect upper gastrointestinal bleeding; HQ / HemoQuant, Feces test should be ordered if clinically indicated.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Fecal immunochemical tests do not detect upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to the breakdown of globin during intestinal transit; HemoQuant is the most sensitive test to detect upper and lower GI bleeding.
Patients with hemorrhoids or females who are menstruating should not undergo occult blood testing until the bleeding has ceased.
Urine and excessive dilution of specimens with water from the toilet bowl may cause erroneous test results.
Clinical pathologic correlative studies.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B, et al: Screening and Surveillance for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer and Adenomatous Polyps, 2008: A Joint Guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin 2008;58:130
2. Whitlock EP, Lin JS, Liles E, et al: Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008;149:638
3. Hol L, Wilschut JA, van Ballegooijen M, et al: Screening for colorectal cancer: random comparison of guaiac and immunochemical faecal occult blood testing at different cut-off levels. Br J Cancer 2009;100:1103
4. Levi Z, Rozen P, Hazazi R, et al: A quantitative immunochemical fecal occult blood test for colorectal neoplasia. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:244
5. Tannous B, Lee-Lewandrowski E, Sharples C, et al: Comparison of conventional guaiac to four immunochemical methods for fecal occult blood testing: implications for clinical practice in hospital and outpatient settings. Clin Chem Acta 2009;400:120-122
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
The OC-Auto Micro 80 fecal occult blood test is an automated immunoassay utilizing polyclonal anti-human hemoglobin A0 (HbA0) antibodies to specifically detect the presence of human hemoglobin in feces. When the HbA0 antibody infused latex particles are added to a fecal sample and agitated, the antigen-antibody reaction is initiated and the particles begin to agglutinate. This agglutination is measured as an optical change, with the increase in absorbance directly proportional to the concentration of hemoglobin in the sample. The quantitative hemoglobin concentration is translated and reported as a qualitative result.(Package insert: OC-Auto Micro 80 FOB Test, 10/12/2009, Polymedco, Courtlandt Manor, NY)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Monday through Friday
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
7 days refrigerate
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
G0328-Government payers (if appropriate)
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|FOB||Fecal Occult Blood||In Process|