Cytochrome P450 1A2 Genotype, Saliva
NY State Approved Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.
Identifying patients who are poor, intermediate, extensive, or ultrarapid metabolizers of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2
Adjusting dosages for drugs that are metabolized by CYP1A2
Testing Algorithm Delineates situation(s) when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.
Special Instructions and Forms Describes specimen collection and preparation information, test algorithms, and other information pertinent to test. Also includes pertinent information and consent forms to be used when requesting a particular test
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Allele Specific Primer Extension (ASPE)/Bead Hybridization with Fluorescence Detection
(PCR is utilized pursuant to a license agreement with Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.)
Reporting Name A shorter/abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test; an abbreviated test name
CYP1A2 Genotype, Saliva
P450 1A2 Genotyping
P450 1A2 Genotyping
Specimen Type Describes the specimen type needed for testing
Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. The volume allows automated processing, fastest throughput and, when indicated, repeat or reflex testing.
Multiple saliva genotype tests can be performed on a single specimen after a single extraction. See Multiple Saliva Genotype Tests in Special Instructions for a list of tests that can be ordered together.
Container/Tube: Oragene DNA Self-Collection Kit (Supply T651)
Specimen Volume: Full tube
1. Fill tube to line.
2. Send specimen in original container per kit instructions.
1. Cytochrome P450 Patient Education Brochure (Supply T526) is available upon request.
2. Liver transplants will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories at 800-533-1710 or 507-266-5700 for instructions.
Forms: New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Please document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. An Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Supply T576) is available in Special Instructions.
Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount of specimen required to perform an assay once, including instrument and container dead space. Submitting the minimum specimen volume makes it impossible to repeat the test or perform confirmatory or perform reflex testing. In some situations, a minimum specimen volume may result in a QNS (quantity not sufficient) result, requiring a second specimen to be collected.
Specimen Stability Information Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the laboratory. Alternate acceptable temperature(s) are also included.
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Primary metabolism of many drugs is performed by cytochrome P450 (CYP), a group of oxidative/dealkylating enzymes localized in the microsomes of many tissues including the intestines and liver. One of these CYP enzymes, CYP1A2, is wholly or partially responsible for the hydroxylation or dealkylation of many commonly prescribed drugs (see below). The current clinical application of this test is focused on the impact of allelic variation on antidepressant and antipsychotic metabolism.
CYP1A2-mediated drug metabolism is highly variable. CYP1A2*1A is the wild type or normal allele. Some individuals have altered CYP1A2 gene sequences that result in synthesis defective enzyme. These individuals metabolize CYP1A2 substrates poorly. Changes in the promoter impacting gene induction of the CYP1A2 gene has been observed, which results in either an increase or decrease of overall metabolic activity. Dosing of drugs that are metabolized through CYP1A2 may require adjustment based on the individual patient's genotype. Patients who are poor metabolizers may require lower than usual doses to achieve optimal response. Patients who are ultrarapid metabolizers may benefit from increased doses. Patients with either ultrarapid or poor metabolism also may benefit by conversion to other comparable drugs that are not primarily metabolized by CYP1A2.
A number of specific polymorphisms have been found in the CYP1A2 gene that results in enzymatic deficiencies. The frequency of these polymorphisms varies within the major ethnic groups.
All of the identified polymorphisms associated with CYP1A2 are autosomal recessive. Consequently, only individuals who are homozygous or compound heterozygous for these polymorphisms are poor metabolizers. Individuals who are heterozygous, with 1 normal gene and 1 defective polymorphic gene, will have metabolism intermediate between the extensive (normal) and poor metabolizers.
The following information outlines the relationship between the polymorphisms detected in this assay and the effect on the activity of the enzyme produced by that allele:
Lower inducibility in Asians but increased inducibility in Northern Europeans
Decreased activity and decreased inducibility
Greatly reduced activity
Greatly reduced activity
Greatly reduced activity
Greatly reduced activity
*Effect of a specific polymorphism on the activity of the CYP1A2 enzyme can only be estimated since the literature does not provide precise data.
A complicating factor in correlating CYP1A2 genotype with phenotype is that some drugs or their metabolites are inhibitors of CYP1A2 catalytic activity. These drugs may reduce CYP1A2 catalytic activity. Consequently, an individual may require a dosing decrease greater than predicted based upon genotype alone. Another complicating factor is that the CYP1A2 gene is inducible by several drugs and environmental agents (eg, cigarette smoke) and the degree of inducibility is under genetic control. It is important to interpret the results of testing in the context of other coadministered drugs and environmental factors.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
An interpretive report will be provided.
An interpretive report will be provided that includes assay information, genotype, and an interpretation indicating whether results are consistent with a poor, intermediate, extensive, or ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype. The report will list drugs known to affect metabolism by CYP1A2. Direct polymorphism analysis for -3860G->A, -2467T->del T, -729C->T, -163C->A, 125C->G, 558C->A, 2116G->A, 2385G->A, 2473G->A, 2499A->T, 3497G->A, 3533G->A, 5090C->T, or 5166G->A is performed following PCR amplification. Direct DNA testing will not detect all the known mutations that result in decreased or inactive CYP1A2 alleles. This assay does not test for some known polymorphisms because those polymorphisms have not been associated with alterations in enzymatic activity. Rare or undescribed variants may not have been found during validation but will be sequence verified upon detection. See http:///www.cypalleles.ki.se/cyp1a2.html for a full description of CYP1A2 alleles. Absence of a detectable gene mutation or polymorphism does not rule out the possibility that a patient has a metabolizer status other than predicted above. The frequency of polymorphisms causing poor metabolism has not been fully characterized in various ethnic groups. Patients with an ultrarapid, extensive, or intermediate genotype may have CYP1A2 enzyme activity inhibited or induced by a variety of substances, medications, or their metabolites. The following is a listing of substances known to affect CYP1A2 activity as the date of this report.
Drugs and substances known to increase (induce) CYP1A2 activity include:
-Broccoli, brussel sprouts, char-grilled meat, insulin, methylcholanthrene, modafinil, nafcillin, beta-naphthoflavone, omeprazole, tobacco
Coadministration will increase the rate of metabolism of CYP1A2-metabolized drugs and may change the effectiveness of the drug.
Drugs and substances known to decrease CYP1A2 activity include:
-Amiodarone, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, fluoroquinolones, fluvoxamine, furafylline, interferon, methoxsalen, mibefradil
Coadministration will decrease the rate of metabolism of CYP1A2-metabolized drugs, increasing the possibility of toxicity.
Drugs and substances that undergo metabolism by CYP1A2 include:
-Acetaminophen, amitriptyline, caffeine, clomipramine, clozapine, cyclobenzaprine, estradiol, fluvoxamine, haloperidol, imipramine, mexiletine, naproxen, olanzapine, ondansetron, phenacetin, propranolol, riluzole, ropivacaine, tacrine, theophylline, tizanidine, verapamil, (R)warfarin, zileuton, zolmitriptan
Coadministration may decrease the rate of elimination of other drugs metabolized by CYP1A2.
Drug-drug interactions and drug-metabolite inhibition or induction must be considered when dealing with heterozygous individuals. Drug-metabolite inhibition occurs with the drugs noted above resulting in inhibition of residual functional CYP1A2 catalytic activity. Drug-metabolite induction occurs with the drugs noted above resulting in variable increase in CYP1A2 enzyme function. This inducibility is under genetic control and this is further varies per ethnicity. Each report will include a list of commonly prescribed drugs that are known to alter CYP1A2 activity. This list includes only those drugs for which established, peer-reviewed literature substantiates the effect. The list provided may not be all-inclusive.
CYP1A2 activity also is dependent upon hepatic and renal function status, as well as age. Patients also may develop toxicity if hepatic or renal function is decreased. Drug metabolism also is known to decrease with age. It is important to interpret the results of testing and dose adjustments in the context of hepatic and renal function and age.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Direct DNA testing will not detect all the known mutations that result in decreased or inactive CYP1A2. Absence of a detectable gene mutation or polymorphism does not rule out the possibility that a patient has an intermediate or poor metabolizer phenotype.
This test does not detect polymorphisms other than those listed. Other polymorphisms in the primer binding regions can affect the testing and, ultimately, the genotyping assessments made.
Patients with an extensive or intermediate metabolizer genotype may have CYP1A2 enzyme activity inhibited by a variety of medications or their metabolites as described previously. Treatment with drugs that are inhibitors of CYP1A2, or produce inhibitors through metabolism, may generate a poor metabolizer phenotype in an individual who has an ultrarapid, extensive, or intermediate metabolizer genotype.
The drug application that we currently support for testing and interpretation is for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Shirley KL, Hon YY, Penzak SR, et al: Correlation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 activity using caffeine phenotyping and olanzapine disposition in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2003;28(5):961-966
2. Shimoda K, Someya T, Morita S, et al: Lack of impact of CYP1A2 genetic polymorphism (C/A polymorphism at position 734 in intron 1 and G/A polymorphism at position -2964 in the 5'-flanking region of CYP1A2) on the plasma concentration of haloperidol in smoking male Japanese with schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2002;26(2):261-265
3. Obase Y, Shimoda T, Kawano T, at al: Polymorphisms in the CYP1A2 gene and theophylline metabolism in patients with asthma. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;73(5):468-474
4. Cornelis MC, El-Sohemy A, Kabagambe EK, et al: CYP1A2 genotype, and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA 2006 Aug 16; 296(7):764-765
Method Description Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference
Genomic DNA is extracted from saliva. Genotyping for CYP1A2 is performed after PCR amplification and allele-specific primer extension with Luminex Molecular Diagnostics' proprietary Universal Tag sorting system on the Luminex 100 xMAP platform. Genotypes are assigned based upon the alleles detected. (Unpublished Mayo method)
Day(s) and Time(s) Test Performed Outlines the days and times the test is performed. This field reflects the day and time the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time required before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means assays are performed several times during the day.
Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. This is defined in number of days. The shortest interval of time expressed is "same day/1 day," which means the results may be available the same day that the sample is received in the testing laboratory. One day means results are available 1 day after the sample is received in the laboratory.
Maximum Laboratory Time Defines the maximum time from specimen receipt at Mayo Medical Laboratories until the release of the test result
Specimen Retention Time Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded
Performing Laboratory Location The location of the laboratory that performs the test
Test Classification Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer's instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR), Investigation Use Only (IUO) product, or a Research Use Only (RUO) product.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
CPT Code Information Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Medical Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.
81479 -Unlisted molecular pathology procedure
LOINC® Code Information Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the result codes returned for this test or profile.
|Result ID||Reporting Name||LOINC Code|
|33007||1A2 -3860g>a||In Process|
|33008||1A2 -2467tdel||In Process|
|33009||1A2 -729c>t||In Process|
|33010||1A2 -163c>a||In Process|
|33011||1A2 125c>g||In Process|
|33012||1A2 558c>a||In Process|
|33013||1A2 2385g>a||In Process|
|33014||1A2 2473g>a||In Process|
|33015||1A2 2499a>t||In Process|
|33016||1A2 3497g>a||In Process|
|33017||1A2 3533g>a||In Process|
|33018||1A2 5090c>t||In Process|
|33019||1A2 5166g>a||In Process|
|33020||1A2 Reviewed by||In Process|
|33021||1A2 Phenotype Interpretation||69047-9|