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Co-receptor tropism is defined as an interaction of a virus with a specific co-receptor on the target cell. To gain entry into
CD4+ cells, HIV must bind to the cell surface CD4 receptor and to one of two co-receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4.
Trofile is a cell-based approach to determine a patientâ€™s HIV co-receptor tropism (or â€œTropotypeâ„¢). Trofile uses the complete gp160 coding region of the HIV-1 envelope protein ensuring that all of the determinants of tropism are tested. CLIA validation experiments demonstrate that Trofile is 100% sensitive at detecting 0.3% CXCR4-using minor variants.
This class of drugs binds to CCR5 and blocks CCR5-mediated HIV entry into host cells. Trofile is used to determine whether a CCR5 antagonist may be an appropriate drug for a patient. Several clinical trials on CCR5 antagonists have demonstrated the positive and negative predictive value of Trofile in clinical settings.
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