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Ehrlichia chaffeensis has been identified as the causative agent of Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME). Infected individuals produce specific antibodies to E. chaffeensis that can be detected by an immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test. Single IgG IFA titers of 1:64 or greater indicate exposure to E. chaffeensis. A four-fold rise in IgG titers between acute and convalescent samples and/or the presence of IgM antibody against E. chaffeensis suggest recent or current infection.