Ketamine and Metabolite Confirmation, Urine
Detection and confirmation of ketamine use
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Ketamine has been used in the United States as an anesthetic induction agent since 1972. The drug acts by noncompetitive antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors.(1,2) Ketamine has become a popular street drug because of its hallucinogenic effects.(3)
Ketamine has a half-life of 3 to 4 hours, and is metabolized to norketamine.(3) The effects from ketamine last from 1 to 5 hours, and ketamine and/or norketamine can be detected in the urine for a period of 1 to 2 days following use.(4)
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
The presence of ketamine and/or norketamine >25 ng/mL is a strong indicator that the patient has used ketamine.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
A kit including all the materials necessary to complete chain-of-custody is available to ensure that the test results are appropriate for legal proceedings.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Ujhelyi MR, Robert S, Cummings DM, et al: Influence of digoxin immune Fab therapy and renal dysfunction on the disposition of total and free digoxin. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:273-277
2. Goodman and Gilman's: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th edition. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2001
3. Baselt RC. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. Seventh edition. Foster City, CA. Biomedical Publications, 2004 pp 1254
4. Mozayani A: Ketamine-Effects on human performance and behavior. Forensic Sci Rev 2002;14:123-131