Diagnosing anaerobic Actinomyces involved in infections
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Anaerobic Actinomyces are non sporeforming, thin branching, gram-positive bacilli that are part of the normal flora of the human oral cavity and may also colonize the gastrointestinal and female genital tracts. Their presence is important in preserving the usual bacterial populations of the mouth and in preventing infection with pathogenic bacteria.
Actinomyces are generally of low pathogenicity but may be an important factor in the development of periodontal disease and may cause soft tissue infections in colonized areas of the body following trauma (surgical or otherwise). The typical lesion consists of an outer zone of granulation around central purulent loculations containing masses of tangled organisms ("sulfur granule"). Chronic burrowing sinus tracts develop. Typical actinomycotic infections occur around the head and neck, in the lung and chest wall, and in the peritoneal cavity and abdominal wall. Actinomycosis of the female genital tract occurs in association with use of intrauterine contraceptive devices. Purulent collections containing "sulfur granules" may drain from some sinus tracts opening to the skin.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Isolation of anaerobic Actinomyces in significant numbers from well collected specimens including blood, other normally sterile body fluids, or closed collections of purulent fluid indicates infection with the identified organism.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Specimens should be collected by needle and syringe aspiration or surgical drainage to avoid contamination with normal-flora Actinomyces, especially in and around the oral cavity; such contamination would make interpretation of culture results impossible.
Specimens must be transported in anaerobic transport vials.
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Finegold SM, George WL: Anaerobic Infections in Humans. San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1989
2. Summanen P, Baron EJ, Citron D, et al: Wadsworth Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, Fifth edition. Star Publishing Co. 1993