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Screening for cervical carcinoma and a number of infections of the female genital tract including human papillomavirus, herpes, Candida, and Trichomonas
Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is believed to develop in progressive stages from normal through precancerous (dysplastic) stages, to carcinoma in situ, and eventually invasive carcinoma. This sequence is felt to develop over a matter of years in most patients.
The etiology of cervical carcinoma is unknown, but the disease is believed to be related to sexual activity and possibly sexually transmitted viral infections such as human papillomavirus (HPV).
Most cervical carcinomas and precancerous conditions occur in the transformation zone (squamo-columnar junction), therefore, this area needs to be sampled if optimum results are to be obtained.
Satisfactory for evaluation. Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy.
Note: Abnormal results will be reviewed by a physician at an additional charge.
Standard reporting, as defined by the Bethesda System (TBS) is utilized.
If endocervical cells have not been obtained (less than optimal smears) the results may be unreliable.
There is a false-negative rate of 10% to 20% in the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
The Papanicolaou test is unreliable for endometrial carcinoma (at least 50% false-negative rate).
1. Wright TC Jr, Cox JT, Massad LS, et al: ASCCP-Sponsored Consensus Conference. 2001 Consensus Guidelines for the management of women with cervical cytological abnormalities. JAMA 2002 April;287(16):2120-2129
2. Solomon D, Davey D, Kurman R, et al: The 2001 Bethesda System: terminology for reporting results of cervical cytology-Consensus Statement JAMA. 2002 April;287(16):2114-2119