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Test Catalog

Test ID: AAMSD    
Amino Acids, Maple Syrup Urine Disease Panel, Plasma

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Follow-up of patients with maple syrup urine disease


Monitoring of dietary compliance for patients with maple syrup urine disease

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive deficiency of the branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The BCKDH complex is involved in the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA): isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), and valine (Val). Classic MSUD presents in the neonate with feeding intolerance, failure to thrive, vomiting, lethargy, and maple syrup odor to urine and cerumen. If untreated, it progresses to irreversible mental retardation, hyperactivity, failure to thrive, seizures, coma, cerebral edema, and possibly death.


MSUD is a panethnic condition, but is most prevalent in the Old Order Mennonite community in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The incidence of MSUD is approximately 1:200,000 live births in the general population and 1:760 live births among the Old Order Mennonites.


Treatment of MSUD aims to normalize the concentration of BCAA by dietary restriction of these amino acids. Because BCAA belong to the essential amino acids, the dietary treatment requires frequent adjustment, which is accomplished by regular determination of BCAA and allo-isoleucine concentrations.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.


< or =23 months: 31-105 nmol/mL

2-17 years: 30-111 nmol/mL

> or =18 years: 36-107 nmol/mL



< or =23 months: 48-175 nmol/mL

2-17 years: 51-196 nmol/mL

> or =18 years: 68-183 nmol/mL



< or =23 months: 83-300 nmol/mL

2-17 years: 106-320 nmol/mL

> or =18 years: 136-309 nmol/mL



< or =23 months: <2 nmol/mL

2-17 years: <3 nmol/mL

> or =18 years: <5 nmol/mL

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

The quantitative results of isoleucine, leucine, valine, and allo-isoleucine with age-dependent reference values are reported without added interpretation. When applicable, reports of abnormal results may contain an interpretation based on available clinical interpretation.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Reference values are for fasting patients.

Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature

Amino acids. In The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. Eighth edition. Edited by CR Scriver, AL Beaudet, WS Sly, et al. New York, McGraw-Hill, Inc 2001, pp 1667-2105