Drug of Abuse, Propoxyphene GC-MS Confirmation, Urine
Confirmation of propoxyphene usage.
This test is designed for laboratories that perform their own drug of abuse screening, but do not have confirmation facilities. The confirmation is performed on urine only and should be ordered as the drug class to be confirmed.
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Propoxyphene (Darvon) is an analgesic used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain that is not adequately relieved by aspirin. It is a congener of the narcotic methadone but is classified as a non-narcotic. It produces analgesia by binding to u-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS).
Propoxyphene undergoes hepatic N-demethylation to produce a major metabolite, norpropoxyphene, which has one-fourth to one-half the pharmacologic activity of the parent drug. The serum half-lives of propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene are 8 to 24 hours and 20 to 50 hours, respectively. Rapid tissue binding of propoxyphene occurs, resulting in the immediate and almost complete disappearance from the bloodstream and relatively high concentrations in the brain, lung, liver, and kidney.
Toxic manifestations are similar to those produced by codeine and include respiratory and CNS depression, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, hypotension, hallucinations, convulsions, and coma. Accidental or intentional ingestion of large amounts of propoxyphene may cause death. Cardiac toxicity from elevated blood levels may be indicated when urine concentrations for propoxyphene are >10,000 ng/mL or norpropoxyphene is >30,000 ng/mL.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Positives are reported with a quantitative GC-MS result.
Propoxyphene: <300 ng/mL
Norpropoxyphene: <300 ng/mL
A positive result derived by this testing indicates that the patient has used propoxyphene in the recent past.
Random urine collection results are not clinically definitive but the following values may be used as guidelines:
-1,000 ng/mL to 5,000 ng/mL: typical for therapeutic dosages
->10,000 ng/mL: may indicate toxic blood concentration
->80,000 ng/mL: may indicate potentially lethal blood concentration
-2,000 ng/mL to 20,000 ng/mL: typical for therapeutic dosages
->30,000 ng/mL: may indicate toxic blood concentration
-> 80,000 ng/mL: may indicate potentially lethal blood concentration
Clinical Reference Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
Baselt RC: In Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 5th edition. Chemical Toxicology Institute, Foster City, CA 2000