|Values are valid only on day of printing.|
Evaluation of renal tubular damage
Monitoring exposure to cadmium and mercury
Beta-2-microglobulin is a low-molecular-weight protein that forms the light chain component of class I histocompatibility (HLA: human leukocyte antigen) antigens.
Increased urine levels are seen in proximal tubular renal damage due to a variety of causes, including cadmium, mercury, lithium, or aminoglycoside toxicity; pyelonephritis; and Balkan nephropathy, a chronic interstitial nephritis of unknown etiology.
< or =300 mcg/L
<300 mcg/g creatinine
Increased excretion is consistent with renal tubular damage.
Beta-2-microglobulin excretion is increased 100 to 1,000 times normal levels in cadmium-exposed workers.
Degradation of beta-2-microglobulin occurs at pH <6.0. See Specimen Required for necessary collection requirements.
1. Ikeda M, Ezaki T, Tsukahara T, et al: Threshold levels of urinary cadmium in relation to increases in urinary beta2-microglobulin among general Japanese populations. Toxicol Lett 2003 Feb 3;137(3):135-141
2. Moriguchi J, Ezaki T, Tsukahara T, et al: Comparative evaluation of four urinary tubular dysfunction markers, with special references to the effects of aging and correction for creatinine concentration. Toxicol Lett 2003 Aug 28;143(3):279-290
3. Stefanovic V, Cukuranovic R, Mitic-Zlatkovic M, Hall PW: Increased urinary albumin excretion in children from families with Balkan nephropathy. Pediatr Nephrol 2002 Nov;17(11):913-916