Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase (UPG D), Whole Blood
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
The porphyrias are a group of inherited disorders resulting from enzyme defects in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is the most common porphyria resulting from a partial deficiency of hepatocyte and/or erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD). PCT is classified into 3 subtypes. The most frequently encountered is type I, a sporadic or acquired form, typically associated with concomitant disease or other precipitating factors. Patients exhibit normal UROD activity in erythrocytes but decreased hepatic activity. This differs from type II PCT in which patients exhibit approximately 50% activity in both erythrocytes and hepatocytes. Type II accounts for about 20% of cases and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with low penetrance. Type III is a rare familial form seen in <5% of PCT cases. As in type I, patients with type III PCT have normal UROD activity in erythrocytes with decreased hepatic activity. Type III cases are distinguished from type I by the history of other affected family members.
Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP) is a rare autosomal recessive form of porphyria that typically presents in early childhood. Patients have a severe deficiency of UROD, with activity levels 10% of normal in both hepatocytes and erythrocytes.
All forms of PCT and HEP result in accumulation of uroporphyrin and intermediary carboxyl porphyrins in skin, subcutaneous tissues, and the liver. The most prominent clinical characteristics are cutaneous photosensitivity and scarring on sun-exposed surfaces. Patients experience chronic blistering lesions resulting from mild trauma to sun-exposed areas. These fluid-filled vesicles rupture easily, become crusted, and heal slowly. Secondary infections can cause areas of hypo- or hyperpigmentation or sclerodermatous changes and alopecia may develop at sites of repeated skin damage. Liver disease is common in patients with PCT as evidenced by abnormal liver function tests with 30% to 40% of patients developing cirrhosis. In addition, there is an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
The workup of patients with a suspected porphyria is most effective when following a stepwise approach.
See Porphyria (Cutaneous) Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions or contact Mayo Medical Laboratories to discuss testing strategies.
Diagnosis of porphyria cutanea tarda type II and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria
Abnormal results are reported with a detailed interpretation that may include an overview of the results and their significance, a correlation to available clinical information provided with the specimen, differential diagnosis, recommendations for additional testing when indicated and available, and a phone number to reach a laboratory director in case the referring physician has additional questions.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Abstinence from alcohol for at least 24 hours is essential, as alcohol suppresses enzyme activity for 24 hours after ingestion. Ingestion may lead to a false-positive result.
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) type I, the most common form of PCT, exhibits normal RBC enzyme activity. The preferred test for diagnosis is PQNU / Porphyrins, Quantitative, 24 Hour, Urine or PQNRU / Porphyrins, Quantitative, Random, Urine.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
1.0-3.0 Relative Units (normal)
0.80-0.99 Relative Units (marginal)
<0.80 Relative Units (porphyria cutanea tarda or hepatoerythropoietic porphyria)
See The Heme Biosynthetic Pathway in Special Instructions.
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Tortorelli S, Kloke K, Raymond K: Chapter 15: Disorders of porphyrin metabolism. In Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Pediatric Disease. Fourth Edition. Edited by DJ Dietzen, MJ Bennett, ECC Wong. AACC Press 2010, pp 307-324
2. Nuttall KL, Klee GG: Analytes of hemoglobin metabolism - porphyrins, iron, and bilirubin. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Fifth edition. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 2001, pp 584-607
3. Anderson KE, Sassa S, Bishop DF, Desnick RJ: Disorders of heme biosynthesis: X-linked sideroblastic anemia and the porphyrias. In The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease. Eighth edition. Edited by CR Scriver, AL Beaudet, WS Sly, et al. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2001, pp 2991-3062
4. Doss MO, Kuhnel A, Gross U: Alcohol and porphyrin metabolism. Alcohol 2000;35(2):109-125