St. Louis Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Since 1933, outbreaks of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) have involved the western United States, Texas, the Ohio-Mississippi Valley, and Florida. The vector of transmission is the mosquito. Peak incidence occurs in summer and early autumn. Disease onset is characterized by generalized malaise, fever, chills, headache, drowsiness, nausea, and sore throat or cough followed in 1 to 4 days by meningeal and neurologic signs. The severity of illness increases with advancing age; persons over 60 years have the highest frequency of encephalitis. Symptoms of irritability, sleeplessness, depression, memory loss, and headaches can last up to 3 years.
Infections with arboviruses, including SLE, can occur at any age. The age distribution depends on the degree of exposure to the particular transmitting arthropod relating to age, sex, and occupational, vocational, and recreational habits of the individuals. Once humans have been infected, the severity of the host response may be influenced by age. SLE tends to produce the most severe clinical infections in older persons.
Aiding the diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis
Detection of organism-specific antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may suggest central nervous system infection. However, these results are unable to distinguish between intrathecal antibodies and serum antibodies introduced into the CSF at the time of lumbar puncture or from a breakdown in the blood-brain barrier. The results should be interpreted with other laboratory and clinical data prior to a diagnosis of central nervous system infection.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
All results must be correlated with clinical history and other data available to the attending physician.
False-positive results may be caused by breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, or by the introduction of blood into the cerebrospinal fluid at collection.
Since cross-reactivity with dengue fever virus does occur with St. Louis encephalitis antigens, and, therefore, cannot be differentiated further, the specific virus responsible for positive results may be deduced by the travel history of the patient, along with available medical and epidemiological data, unless the virus can be isolated.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Reference values apply to all ages.
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Gonzalez-Scarano F, Nathanson N: Bunyaviruses. In Fields Virology. Vol 1. Second edition. Edited by BM Fields, DM Knipe. New York, Raven Press, 1990, pp 1195-1228
2. Donat JF, Rhodes KH, Groover RV, Smith TF: Etiology and outcome in 42 children with acute nonbacterial meningoencephalitis. Mayo Clin Proc 1980:55:156-160
3. Tsai TF: Arboviruses. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Seventh edition. Edited by PR Murray, EF Baron, MA Pfaller, et al. Washington, DC, ASM Press, 1999, pp 1107-1124
4. Calisher CH: Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev 1994;7:89-116