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Enterobius vermicularis (pinworms) are nematodes (roundworms) which are found worldwide in both temperate and tropical areas. The adults reside in the upper large intestine of humans and transmission is by the fecal-oral route. Adult females migrate to the perianal area, especially during the night, and deposit large numbers of eggs.
Pinworm infection is the most common helminth infection in the United States and is the most common in young school-age children of all social classes. Pinworms do not produce significant intestinal disease but can cause irritating pruritus in the perianal area. They have also been implicated in vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls and possibly in urinary tract infections.
Several agents are effective in treating pinworm infection (pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole), and good personal hygiene will prevent transmission of the eggs.
Detection of the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis on the skin of the perianal folds
Positive results are provided indicating the presence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis.
Although adult pinworms and eggs can occasionally be observed in stool specimens, examination of feces is not the optimum method for detecting those parasites.
Negative (reported as positive or negative)
Mahmoud AAF: Intestinal nematodes (roundworms). In Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Fourth edition. Edited by GL Mandell, RG Douglas Jr, JE Bennett. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1995, pp 2526-2530