Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Panel
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma is the third leading cause of death from cancer.(1) While hepatocellular carcinoma can be treated effectively in its early stages, most patients are not diagnosed until they are symptomatic and at higher grades and stages, which are less responsive to therapies. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the standard serum tumor marker utilized in the evaluation of suspected hepatocellular carcinoma. However, increased serum concentrations of AFP might be found in chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, as well as in other tumor types (eg, germ cell tumors), decreasing the specificity of AFP testing for hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, AFP is not expressed at high levels in all hepatocellular carcinoma patients, resulting in decreased sensitivity, especially in potentially curable small tumors.
AFP is differentially glycosylated in several hepatic diseases. For example, UDP-alpha-1-->6-fucosyltransferase is differentially expressed in hepatocytes following malignant transformation.(3) This enzyme incorporates fucose residues on the carbohydrate chains of AFP. Different glycosylated forms of AFP can be recognized following electrophoresis by reaction with different carbohydrate-binding plant lectins. The fucosylated form of serum AFP that is most closely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma is recognized by a lectin from the common lentil (Lens culinaris). This is designated as AFP-L3 (third electrophoretic form of lentil lectin-reactive AFP). AFP-L3 is most useful in the differential diagnosis of individuals with total serum AFP < or =200 ng/mL, which may result from a variety of benign pathologies, such as chronic liver diseases.
Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), also known as the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II), is an abnormal form of the coagulation protein, prothrombin. DCP is a nonfunctional prothrombin resulting from a lack of carboxylation of 10 glutamic acid residues in the N-terminal portion of the molecule. In normal liver, prothrombin undergoes post-translational carboxylation before release into the peripheral blood. The carboxylation converts specific amino-terminal glutamic acid residues to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. The vitamin K dependent carboxylase responsible for the carboxylation is absent in many hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and an abnormal prothrombin with all or some of unconverted glutamic acid is secreted. Therefore, this noncarboxylated form (DCP) has been used as an HCC biomarker.
DCP is considered a complementary biomarker to alpha fetoprotein AFP and AFP-L3% for assessing the risk of developing HCC. The elevation of both AFP-L3% and DCP indicate progression of HCC, albeit they reflect different features of the progression. In a prospective study of patients in the United States with an established diagnosis of HCC, the sensitivities for AFP, AFP-L3%, and DCP were 68%, 62%, and 73%, respectively. When the 3 markers were combined, the sensitivity was 86%. In another study, DCP levels were shown to correlate with tumor size and metastatic HCC. In this study, compared to AFP and AFP-L3%, DCP had the highest sensitivity (87%) and the highest positive predictive value (87%) in patients with HCC due to chronic hepatitis B and C infections. A number of studies have shown that elevated serum DCP is significantly related to portal vein invasion and/or intrahepatic metastasis, which significantly affect prognosis for patients with HCC.
DCP can be elevated in other conditions besides HCC. Conditions such as obstructive jaundice, intrahepatic cholestasis causing chronic decrease in vitamin K, and ingestion of drugs such as warfarin or wide-spectrum antibiotics can result in high concentrations of DCP. In addition, 25% to 50% of patients with HCC will have a DCP value within the reference range. Because of this, a normal DCP value does not rule out HCC.
Risk assessment of patients with chronic liver disease for development of hepatocellular carcinoma
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-L3 > or =10% is associated with a 7-fold increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with AFP-L3 > or =10% should be monitored more intensely for evidence of hepatocellular carcinoma according to current practice guidelines.
Total serum AFP >200 ng/mL is highly suggestive of a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In patients with liver disease, a total serum AFP of >200 ng/mL is near 100% predictive of hepatocellular carcinoma. With decreasing total AFP levels, there is an increased likelihood that chronic liver disease, rather than hepatocellular carcinoma, is responsible for the AFP elevation.
Based on a retrospective study at Mayo Clinic, for patients with total AFP levels < or =200 ng/mL, AFP-L3 specificity approaches 100% for hepatocellular carcinoma when its percentage exceeds 35% of the total AFP.(4)
AFP concentrations over 100,000 ng/mL have been reported in normal newborns, and the values rapidly decline in the first 6 years of life.
In patients with an elevated des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) result (> or =7.5 ng/mL), the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is 36.5% (95% CI 23.5%-49.6%). The risk of developing HCC with a negative DCP result (<7.5 ng/mL) is 7.6% (95% CI 4.4%-10.8%).
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Serum markers are not specific for malignancy, and values may vary by method. Do not interpret alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP-L3, and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) levels as absolute evidence of the presence or absence of malignant disease. Results should be used in conjunction with information from the clinical evaluation of the patient, cytology, and imaging procedures.
Values obtained with different assay methods or kits cannot be used interchangeably.
Some patients who have been exposed to animal antigens, either in the environment or as part of treatment or imaging procedures, may have circulating anti-animal antibodies present. These antibodies may interfere with the assay reagents to produce unreliable results in the AFP-L3 and DCP assays.
Test results for AFP are not interpretable if the patient is pregnant.
DCP-producing tumors other than hepatocellular carcinoma can show elevated DCP values. Liver disease caused by other etiologies such as alcohol-induced liver disease, hemochromatosis, Wilson disease, autoimmune hepatitis, and steatohepatitis have not been studied with the DCP assay.
Medications containing vitamin K preparations may cause a negative bias with DCP values. Medications containing vitamin K antagonist or antibiotic may cause a positive bias with DCP values.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
DCP: <7.5 ng/mL
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Okuda K: Hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol 2000; 32(Suppl 1):225-237
2. Kawai K, Kojima T, Miyanaga N, et al: Lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein as a marker for testicular tumor activity. Int J Urol 2005; 12:284-289
3. Noda K, Miyoshi E, Kitada T, et al: The enzymatic basis for the conversion of nonfucosylated to fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein by acyclic retinoid treatment in human hepatoma cells: Activation of alpha 1-6 fucosyltransferase. Tumor Biol 2002; 23:202-211
4. Leerapun A, Suravarapu S, Bida JP, et al: The utility of serum AFP-L3 in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: Evaluation in a U.S. referral population. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5(3):394-402
5. Package insert: LBA AFP-L3, Wako Diagnostics, Richmond, VA. 06.1.24K02
6. Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. Specimen Stability Bulletin, March 22, 2006
7. Carr B, Kanke F, Wise M, Satomura S: Clinical evaluation of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin in histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. Dig Dis Sci 2007; 52:776-782
8. Durazo FA, Blatt LM, Corey WG, et al: Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin, alpha-fetoprotein and AFP-L3 in patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;23:1541-1548
9. Marrero JA, Feng Z, Wang Y, et al: Alpha-fetoprotein, des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, and lectin-bound alpha-fetoprotein in early hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2009;137:110-118
10. Bertino G, Ardiri AM, Calvagno GS, et al: Prognostic and diagnostic value of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin in liver cancer. Drug News Perspect 2010 Oct;23(8):498-508