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Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever, San Joaquin Valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern United States, Central America, and South America. It is acquired by inhalation of arthroconidia of Coccidioides immitis. Usually, it is a mild, self-limiting pulmonary infection, often leaving a coin-like lesion. Less commonly, chronic pneumonia may persist or progress to fibronodular, cavitary disease. A rash often develops within 1 to 2 days, followed by erythema nodosum or multiforme and accompanying arthralgias. About 2 weeks after exposure, symptomatic patients develop fever, cough, malaise, and anorexia; chest pain is often severe. Coccidioidomycosis may disseminate beyond the lungs to involve multiple organs including the meninges.
Serologic testing for coccidioidomycosis should be considered when patients exhibit symptoms of meningeal infection and have lived or traveled in areas where Coccidioides immitis is endemic. Any history of exposure to the organism or travel cannot be overemphasized when coccidioidomycosis serologic tests are being considered.
Complement Fixation (CF):
IgG antibody is detected by CF testing. Any CF titer in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) should be considered significant. A positive complement fixation test in unconcentrated CSF is diagnostic of meningitis.
IgM and IgG precipitins are rarely found in CSF. However, when present, they are diagnostic of meningitis (100% specific). Since the ID test is 100% specific, it is helpful in interpreting CF results.
Early primary antibody (IgM) found in coccidioidomycosis can be detected by the IgM-specific ID test. IgM precipitins may be detectable within 1 to 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The presence of IgG antibody parallels the CF antibody and indicates an active or a recent asymptomatic infection with Coccidioides immitis. Both IgG and IgM antibodies are rarely detected 6 months after infection. However, in some patients having disseminated infection, both IgG and IgM antibodies may be present for several years. IgM and IgG precipitins are not prognostic.
An equivocal result (a band of nonidentity) cannot be interpreted as significant for a specific diagnosis. However, this may be an indication that a patient should be followed serologically.
The sensitivity of serologic testing (CF and ID combined) for coccidioidomycosis is >90% or primary symptomatic cases.
While complement fixation (CF) titers may be present in serum months after the infection has resolved, any CF titer in spinal fluid should be considered significant.
If positive, results are titered.
Results are reported as positive, negative, or equivocal.
Larone D, Mitchell T, Walsh T: Histoplasma, blastomyces, coccidioides, and other dimorphic fungi causing systemic mycoses. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Seventh edition. Edited by PR Murray, EJ Baron, MA Pfaller, et al: Washington, DC, ASM Press, 1999, pp 1260-1261