Adenovirus, Molecular Detection, PCR
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Human adenoviruses cause a variety of diseases including pneumonia, cystitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, hepatitis, myocarditis, and encephalitis. In humans, adenoviruses have been recovered from almost every organ system. Infections can occur at any time of the year and in all age groups. Currently, there are 51 adenovirus serotypes that have been grouped into 6 separate subgenera.
Culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis for adenovirus infection. However, it can take up to 3 weeks to achieve culture results (Mayo Clinic's shell vial culture provides more rapid results, reported at 2 and 5 days). Serological tests have faster turnaround times, but can be less sensitive compared to culture. PCR offers a rapid, specific, and sensitive means of diagnosis by detecting adenovirus DNA.
Aiding in the diagnosis of adenovirus infections
A positive result indicates the presence of adenoviruses.
A negative result does not rule out the presence of adenoviruses because organisms may be present at levels below the detection limits of this assay.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Test results should be used as an aid in diagnosis and should not be considered diagnostic in themselves.
Although the reference range is generally considered to be "Negative" for this assay, adenovirus DNA may be detected from asymptomatic individuals in certain settings. This assay should only be used to test patients with clinical history and symptoms consistent with adenovirus disease, and is not used to screen healthy patients.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Ebner K, Pinsker W, Lion T: Comparative sequence analysis of the hexon gene in the entire spectrum of human adenovirus serotypes: phylogenetic, taxonomic, and clinical implications. J Virol 2005;79:12635-12642
2. Ebner K, Suda M, Watzinger F, Lion T: Molecular detection and quantitative analysis of the entire spectrum of human adenoviruses by a two-reaction real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:3049-3053
3. Jothikumar N, Cromeans TL, Hill VR, et al: Quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of human adenoviruses and identification of serotypes 40 and 41. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005;71:3131-3136
4. Robinson C, Echavarria M: Adenovirus. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Edited by PR Murray, EJ Baron, JH Jorgensen, et al: Ninth edition. Washington, DC, ASM Press, 2007, pp 1589-1600
5. Thavagnanam S, Christie SN, Doherty GM, et al: Respiratory viral infection in lower airways o asymptomatic children. Acta Paediatr Mar;99(3):394-398
6. Kaneko H, Maruko I, Iida T, et al: The possibility of human adenovirus detection in the conjunctiva in asymptomatic cases during a nosocomial infection. Cornea Jun 2008;27(5):527-530