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Interpretive Handbook

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Test 50255 :
Acute Porphyria, Multi-Gene Panel

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Acute porphyria is caused by autosomal dominant mutations in 1 of 3 genes: HMBS, associated with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP); CPOX, associated with hereditary coproporphyria (HCP); and PPOX, associated with variegate porphyria (VP). Mutations in these genes show incomplete penetrance, and patients with a confirmed deleterious mutation may be asymptomatic.

 

Clinical manifestations of acute porphyria include attacks of neurologic dysfunction, commonly characterized as abdominal pain. However, these acute attacks are variable and can include vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, urinary retention, acute episodes of neuropathic symptoms, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, respiratory paralysis, tachycardia, and hypertension. Respiratory paralysis can progress to coma and death.

 

HCP and VP are also associated with cutaneous manifestations, including edema, sun-induced erythema, acute painful photodermatitis, and urticaria. In some cases, patients present with isolated photosensitivity.

 

Acute attacks may be prevented by avoiding both endogenous and exogenous triggers. These triggers include porphyrogenic drugs, hormonal contraceptives, fasting, alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis.

 

Fecal porphyrins analysis and quantitative urinary porphyrins analysis are helpful in establishing a diagnosis of acute porphyria.

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Confirmation of acute porphyria for patients with clinical features of the disease

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An interpretive report will be provided.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A small percentage of individuals who have a diagnosis of acute porphyria may have a mutation that is not identified by this method (eg, large genomic deletions, promoter mutations). The absence of a mutation, therefore, does not eliminate the possibility of positive carrier status or the diagnosis of acute porphyria.

 

In some cases, DNA alterations of undetermined significance may be identified.

 

Rare polymorphisms exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

 

A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.  

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in our interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Siegesmund M, van Tuyll van Serooskerken AM, Poblete-Gutierrez P, Frank J: The acute hepatic porphyrias: current status and future challenges. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2010 Oct;24(5):593-605

2. Anderson KE, Bloomer JR, Bonkovsky HL, et al: Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the acute porphyrias. Ann Intern Med 2005 Mar 15;142(6):439-450


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